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Self-Proclaimed Micronations

Micronations:  Hutt River - Outer Baldonia - Saugeais - Sealand - Seborga

Note: This page is about a small number of entities that are mostly historical anomalies and aspirant states founded on historical anomalies or eccentric interpretations of law. This page is about entities that are not recognized by world governments or major international organizations. For information on countries that are generally recognized, but are geographically tiny such as Nauru, Vatican City, or San Marino, see microstates. Micronations – sometimes also referred to as cybernations, fantasy countries, model countries, and new country projects – are entities that resemble independent nations or states, but for the most part exist only on paper, on the Internet, or in the minds of their creators. Some micronations have managed to extend some of their operations into the real world: examples of this may include currency, flags, postage, etc. These trappings of the more widely accepted nations and states of the "real world" may serve to enhance the suspension of disbelief for people both inside and outside of the micronations in question.
  The term "micronation" is a neologism originating in the 1990's to describe the many thousands of small, unrecognized state-like entities that have arisen mostly since that time. The term has since also come to be used retroactively to refer to earlier unrecognized entities, some of which date as far back as the 19th century. In recent years the term "micropatrology" has been used by some to describe the study of micronations; it is not a formal academic discipline.
  Micronations should be distinguished from various entities which exercise effective governmental and military control over a territory, despite not being recognized as a state by most or all other states. Examples of such entities would include South Ossetia, Abkhazia, and Transnistria, or many parts of the world controlled by rebel guerrilla groups. By contrast, micronations do not exercise effective military or governmental control of any more than a very small area (e.g. the private property of its founders), if that. These criteria distinguish micronations from imaginary countries, eco-villages, campuses, tribes, clans, sects, and residential community associations, which do not usually seek to be recognized as sovereign. Micronations should also be distinguished from entities that have diplomatic relations with other recognized nation-states of the world without being formally recognized themselves by many nation-states or major international bodies (such as the UN). Examples of this include Taiwan, Tibet, and Palestine. By contrast, micronations do not generally have diplomatic relations with recognized nation-states of the world or major international bodies (such as the UN).

Disclaimer: This page does not formally recognize, support or endorse these polities or any money making schemes they operate. 

Hutt River 
                            of Hutt River flag (Western Australia)]
Adopted 1970

Map of Hutt River
Hear National Anthem
"Hutt River National Anthem"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1984
(1 Oct 2005/1 Jan 2011)
Capital: Nain
Currencies: Hutt River Dollar;
Australian Dollar (AUD)
National Holiday: 21 Apr (1970)
Independence Day
Population: 30 (2017)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: European, Aboriginal
Total Armed Forces: None
Religions: Anglican, other
International Organizations/Treaties: None
Hutt River Index

21 Apr 1970                  Province of Hutt River; declares secession from
                               the State of Western Australia and 
                               from Australia (not formally recognized by
                               Australia or Western Australia).
1970                         Hutt River Province Principality
23 Nov 1977                  George F. Hamm laid claim to part of Antarctica in
                               the name of the Sovereign of Hutt River while on
                               on the Qantas 707 South Magnetic Pole flight.
 1 Oct 2005                  Principality of Hutt River Province
12 Sep 2006                  Principality of Hutt River
31 Jan 2020                  Suspends all government external services and
                               closes the border due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
 3 Aug 2020                  Announcement that the government will dissolve and
                              once again become part of Western Australia.

Hutt River website

21 Apr 1970 - 1970          Leonard                            (b. 1925 - d. 2019)
                              (= Leonard George Casley)
1970 - 11 Feb 2017          Leonard I                          (s.a.)
11 Feb 2017 -               Graeme I (= Graeme Ernest Casley)  (b. 1957)

Prime minister
.... - 14 Jun 2020          Prince Ian (= Ian George Casley)   (b. 1947 - d. 2020)

Territorial Dispute: 'independence' not recognized by Australia or any other nation.

note: Leonard Casley (s.a.) settled as a farmer in Western Australia in 1969. Outraged by the low wheat allotment sent him by the Australian government that year, Casley seceded and formed the independent Hutt River Province. Casley's new country soon came under attack, when the Prime Minister began threatening action against Hutt River. The citizens of Hutt River responded by acclaiming Casley as Prince Leonard I; under Commonwealth law, a monarch could not be charged with treason. While the loopholes have since been closed, the Australian government has not moved against Hutt River since the declaration. Leonard and his son, Crown Prince Ian, rule as benevolent monarchs over the sixty-odd residents and some 17,500 overseas citizens. 
  Hutt River Province Principality is situated 595 km north of Perth, Western Australia and is about 75 square km in size, consisting of some 18,500 acres of land. Hutt River is an Independent Sovereign State having  seceded from Australia on 21 Apr 1970 and is of comparable size to Hong Kong (not including the New Territories). 

Minerva: see under Tonga

Outer Baldonia 

[Principality of
                          Outer Baldonia flag 1949-1973 (Nova Scotia,
1949 - 28 Dec 1973

Map of Outer Baldonia Hear National Anthem Text of National Anthem State Charter
 Capital: Royal Palace Currency: Tunar;
Canadian Dollar (CAD)
National Holiday: N/A Membership: 69 
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: White
Total Naval Force: 69
Religions: N/A
International Organizations/Treaties: None
Outer Baldonia

1948                       Outer Bald Tusket Island, 8 nautical miles off the
                             southernmost extremity Nova Scotia, Canada, is
                             purchased by Russell Arundel for $750.
1949                       Principality of Outer Baldonia declared independent
 9 Mar 1953                Declares war on Soviet Union in response to
                             negative press in the Literaturnaya Gazeta.
28 Dec 1973                Sold by Arundel for $1 to the Nature Conservancy of
                             Canada. Is is now under the Nova Scotia Bird
                             Society as Earle E. Arundel Bird Sanctuary.


(styled Prince of Princes)
1949 - 28 Dec 1973         Russell M. Arundel ("Russell Rex I")(b. 1902 - d. 1978)

note: This was a tongue-in-cheek nation founded by American businessman Russell M. Arundel (s.a.) on a wind swept rocky island. It was reportedly recognized only by Nova Scotia. The text of the Charter of Outer Baldonia is preserved in the Yarmouth County Museum, but we must rely on what few details have been repeated by those familiar with its contents. The general drift may be surmised by the following extract from the Declaration of Independence: "That fishermen are a race alone. That fishermen are endowed with the following inalienable rights: The right to lie and be believed. The right of freedom from question, nagging, shaving, interruption, women, taxes, politics, war, monologues, care and inhibitions. The right to applause, vanity, flattery, praise and self-inflation. The right to swear, lie, drink, gamble and silence. The right to be noisy, boisterous, quiet, pensive, expensive and hilarious. The right to choose company and the right to be alone. The right to sleep all day and stay up all night."  After the Soviet Literaturnaya Gazeta attacked Outer Baldonia as an imperialistic stronghold promoted by Wall Street, Baldonia declared a state of war with the U.S.S.R. Baldonia never received a formal reply from the Soviet government, however it did not survive the ensuing media attention and the decline in Tuna. Today the tuna are gone, and all that remains of Baldonia is a sadly neglected stone hut and a few precious notes and articles kept in the back closet of the Yarmouth County Museum.


[Republic of
                          Saugeais (Doubs, France)]
Adopted 1973

Map of Saugeais
Hear National Anthem
 "Hymne National Saugeais"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1947
Capital: Montbenoît
Currency: Saugeais Sol;
Euro (EUR);
to 1 Jan 2002 French
Franc (FRF)
National Holiday:
1st Sunday in Oct.
(Montbenoît Festival)
Population: 5,029 (2017)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: French, Swiss, German
Total Armed Forces: 13 (2005)
Religions: Roman Catholic, others
International Organizations/Treaties: None
Saugeais Index

1150                        Landry, Seigneur of Joux, gives the 
                              territory to Humbert, the Archbishop of 
1100                        A hermit named Benoît lives with a small 
                              community. These religionists were led by 
                              Narduin and lived under the rule of 
                              St. Colomban. They clear the region and 
                              construct the abbey, around which later will
                              group eleven communes (which today are in
                              the French département of Doubs).
1773                        Abbey is closed.
1947                        Republic of Saugeais (République du Saugeais
                              proclaimed, partly in response to a joke by 
                              the local Prefect Ottavianni (not recognized
                              by Doubs département or France).

Saugeais website

1947 - 1968                Georges Pourchet                   (b. 1901? - d. 1968)
1968 - 31 Aug 2005         Gabrielle Pourchet (f)             (b. 1906 - d. 2005)
                             (de facto to 1972)
 1 Sep 2005 - 28 Jan 2006  Jean-Marie Nicod (interim)         (b. 1951 - d. 2017)
28 Jan 2006 -              Georgette Bertin-Pourchet (f)      (b. 1934)

Prime minister
1990 - 13 Feb 2017         Jean-Marie Nicod                   (s.a.)

Territorial Dispute: 'independence' not recognized by France or any other nation.

note: The Republic of Saugeais is located in the upper valley of the river Doubs, an area known as Val Sauget since the XIIth century. The republic is made of the 11 municipalities of Les Alliés, Arçon, Bugny, La Chaux-de-Gilley, Gilley, Hauterive-la-Fresne, la Longeville, Maisons-du-Bois-Lièvremont, Montbenoît, Montflovin and Ville-du-Pont.
  In the middle of the XIIth century, Landry, Lord of Joux, decided to found and fund an abbey in the desert upper valley of Doubs. He gave land to Humbert, Archbishop of Besançon, who invited monks from Saint-Maurice-d'Agaune (Valais/Wallis, Switzerland) to settle there. The monks came with colons from the Grishuns and Savoy, who brought their local languages
which were still widely used in the valley in the beginning of the XXth century. The colons met the local hermit Benoît, and the abbey was named after him. A monk called Norduin built the abbey, which was placed under St. Colomban's rule. The abbey remained under the control of the Lords of Joux. In 1508, the system of commende was established, by which the abbots
rcieved a rent but did not live in the abbey. The most famous of these commendataire abbots was Ferry Carondelet, a former councilor of Emperor Charles V fond of the Italian Renaissance, who richly decorated the abbey. The abbey was eventually closed in 1723.
  In 1947, the Prefect of the department of Doubs, Mr. Ottavianni, came to Montbenoît to attend the recruiting board. He took his lunch in the Hôtel de l'Abbaye in Montbenoît, owned by Georges Pourchet. As a joke, Pourchet asked the Prefet: "Do you have a transire allowing you to enter the Republic of Saugeais?" The Prefect asked for more details on the Republic and
eventually answered: "A Republic must have a President. You are appointed President of the Free Republic of Saugeais." The President died in 1968. His wife Gabrielle retired in 1970 but remained active in Montbenoît, helping the parish priest to preserve the abbey. In 1972, a festival was organized in order to raise funds for the abbey preservation. During the lunch,
Gabrielle Pourchet was elected by acclamation President of the Free Republic of Saugeais for the rest of her life.

[Principality of Sealand flag] Adopted 2 Sep 1967
[Sealand Principality
Principality Standard
Map of Sealand
Hear National Anthem
"E Mare Libertas"
(From the Sea, Freedom)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 2001 (no Lyrics)
(2 Sep 1967/1989)
Capital: Sealand
(Fort Roughs)
Sealand Dollar (SX$)
(from 1972)
National Holidays: 2 Sep (1967)
Independence Day;
8 Aug (1952)
Regents Day
(Birthday of Prince Michael)
Population: 50 (2013)
GDP: $600,000 (2002)
Revenue: $372,000 (2002)
Expenditures: $194,000 (2002)
Ethnic groups: European, North American
Total Security Force: about 10 (2003)
Religions: Church of England 26%, other 74% (2002)
International Organizations/Treaties: None
Sealand Index

1942                     United Kingdom creates a base consisting of 
                           concrete and steel construction outside British 
                           territorial waters named Royal Fort Roughs Tower
                           (at 51-53-40 degrees North latitude and 01-28-57
                           degrees East longitude).
1945/46                  The fort is abandoned after World War II.
 2 Sep 1967              Principality of Sealand (not recognized by U.K.).
25 Nov 1968              De facto recognition by British court when it
                           admits it "could not exert any jurisdiction 
                           outside the national territory at the high seas."
Aug 1978                 Several Dutch and Germans mercenaries fail in a forced 
                           attempt to occupy Sealand.
 1 Oct 1987              Extension of U.K. territorial waters from 3 
                           to 12 NM.
22 Aug 2000 - 2008       Leased to internet hosting company HavenCo.
23 Jun 2006              The top platform of the Roughs Tower caught fire,
                           damage repaired by Nov 2006.

Picture of Sealand
Sealand website

 2 Sep 1967 -  9 Oct 2012  Roy I (= Roy Bates)                (b. 1921 - d. 2012)
 6 Nov 1999 -  9 Oct 2012  Prince Michael of Sealand -Regent  (b. 1952)
                             (= Michael Bates)
 9 Oct 2012 -              Michael                            (s.a.)

No Political Parties Exist

Territorial Disputes: U.K. claims Sealand territorial waters and jurisdiction since 1987 (date of extension of U.K. territorial limits); 'independence' not recognized by U.K. or any other nation.

note: Sealand is an abandoned World War II anti-aircraft platform in the Thames Estuary. It just outside the UK's 3-mile territorial water limit. In the mid 1960s it was occupied by a British businessman, Roy Bates (s.a.), and his family. He proclaimed himself Prince Roy and the platform to be the Principality of Sealand. They have had a checkered history: at one point some associates of Prince Roy made an armed occupation of the platform and he had to make an armed counter-coup. The invaders were overwhelmed, tried and sentenced to death for treason. However, the Sealanders decided it would be prudent to commute the sentences to exile and the invaders were released. 
  Recently the British Home Office issued a statement saying that in the British government's view Sealand remains British territory and that if there are grounds to suspect that its occupants have broken British law action will be taken. 
  The nation of Sealand is composed of a steel and concrete platform anchored to the bottom of the sea off the coast of England, not in the Channel but in the North Sea. Once known as Roughs Tower, it was built by the British military in what were then international waters anywhere beyond 3 nautical miles from the coast as a defense against Germany during World War II. The fortress is located about 7 nautical miles from shore at 51° 53' 40" north latitude, 01° 28' 7" east longitude. 
  The troops abandoned the fort after the war, leaving it legally deserted and abandoned, and easing the way for Englishman Roy Bates and his family to settle there on September 2, 1967. Proclaiming the island his own state, Bates gave the titles of prince and princess to himself and his wife and called his new home the Principality of Sealand. 
  Prince Roy's sovereignty was contested by the British government in 1968. When Royal Marines were cruising off his "coast," the prince even fired warning shots from the fort's old guns. Soon after, a British court declared it had no jurisdiction outside British territorial waters, thus leaving Sealand its autonomy. Since 1987 English territorial waters have extended from 3 to 12 nautical miles. The principality now has 160,000 citizens, mostly business people who claim secondary citizenship in Sealand but live in their countries of origin. 

[Seborga flag before 1729
to 1729
[Principality of Seborga flag
                                    1995-1997 (Liguria, Italy)]
1995 - 1997
[Principality of Seborga flag
                                    (Liguria, Italy)]
Adopted 1997
Map of Seborga
Hear National Anthem
"Valli di Seborga"
(Valley of Seborga)
Text of National Anthem
From 6 May 1998 Unofficial
(23 Apr 1995)
Capital: Seborga
Currency: Seborga
Luigino (SPL)(1994-1996);
Euro (EUR);
to 1 Jan 2002 French Franc
(FRF), Italian Lira (ITL)
National Holiday: 20 Aug (1153)
St. Bernard's Day 
Population: 297 (2018)
GDP: $600,000 (2002)
Exports: $325,000 (2002)
Imports: $122,000 (2002)
Ethnic groups: Italian, French, others
Total Security Force (Corpo delle Guardie): N/A
Religions: Roman Catholic, other
International Organizations/Treaties: None
Seborga Index

954                        Seborga (French: Sabourg) allegedly ceded by the
                             Counts of Ventimiglia to the Cistercian Abbey of
                             Lerino (French: Abbaye de Lérins) near Cannes

                             (see Italian states before 1860).
13 Jul 1177                Dispute settled by confirming ownership to the Abbey.
1635 - 1637                Spanish occupy Lerino (Lérins).
20 Jan 1729                Sold by Abbey of Lérins to
10 Aug 1787                Lerino (Lérins) Abbey is dis-established.
23 Apr 1995                Referendum votes for "independence" from
                             (Principality of Seborga [Principato di Seborga])
                             (not recognized by Italy).

Seborga website

14 May 1963 - 25 Nov 2009  Giorgio I (= Giorgio Carbone)      (b. 1936 - d. 2009)
25 Nov 2009 - 22 May 2010  Alberto Romano -Regent
22 May 2010 - 10 Nov 2019  Marcello I (= Marcello Menegatto)  (b. 1978)
22 Feb 2016 -
12 Apr 2019  Nicolas I (= Nicolas Mutte)        (b. 1970)
                             (in opposition to Mar 2020)
10 Nov 2019 -              Nina (= Nina Döbler Menegatto)     (b. 1978)

Territorial Dispute: 'independence' not recognized by Italy or any other nation.

note: On 21 May 1995, the news program ARD Weltspiegel (German television) reported from the 'independent Principato di Seborga' at the foot of the Ligurian Alps in Italy (near the border with France). At the end of Apr 1995, the majority of the inhabitants (304 against 4) of this tiny village voted in favor of independence.
  Giorgio Carbone (s.a.), the so-called "prince" of Seborga, claims the independence of that village, but it had been annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the House of Savoy) on 20 Jan 1729. Before that date the village wasn't a Principality, but a feudal possession of the of the Cistercian Order. The inhabitants might have voted for the independence in an illegal referendum made by Carbone, but they still vote in the legal elections of the Republic of Italy, as demonstrated by at ( And the mayor, Franco Fogliarini, democratically elected by the citizens of the municipality of Seborga on 13 May 2001, is openly against the independence of Carbone's "Principality", as demonstrated by his interview in article at ( After Carbone's death 31 year old building contractor, Marcello Menegatto (s.a.) is elected prince for the next 7 years as Marcello I.

© Ben Cahoon