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Rwanda 
 
[Rwanda flag, 1959-1961]
1959 - 28 Jan 1961
[Rwanda flag, 1961-1962]
28 Jan 1961 - 1 Jul 1962
[Rwanda flag, 1962-2001]
1 Jul 1962 - 31 Dec 2001
[Rwanda]
Adopted 1 Jan 2002


Map of Rwanda
Hear National Anthem
"Rwanda Nziza"
(Rwanda,
Our Beautiful Country)
Adopted 1 Jan 2002
Hear Former Anthem
"Rwanda Rwacu"
(Our Rwanda)
(1 Jul 1962 - 31 Dec 2001)
Constitution
(26 May 2003)
----------------------------------
1995 Constitution
(5 May 1995- 26 May 2003)
Capital: Kigali
(
Nyanza 1958-1962;
Astrida 1935-1958;
Butare 1916-1935; Royal
capital: Nyanza 1899-1958)
Currency: Rwandan Franc
(RWF); 1960-1964 Ruanda and
Urundi Franc (BRIF); 1919-1960
Belgian Congo Franc (CEF)
National Holiday: 1 July (1962)
Independence Day
Population: 12,712,431 (2019)
GDP: $24.68 billion (2017)
Exports: $1.05 billion (2017)
Imports: $1.92 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Hutu 85%, Tutsi 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1% (2002) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 33,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2018)
Religions: Protestant 49.5% (includes Adventist 11.8% and
 other Protestant 37.7%), Roman Catholic 43.7%, Muslim 2%,
other 0.9% (includes Jehovah's Witness), none 2.5%,
unspecified 1.3% (2012)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfCFTA, AfDB, AIIB (nonregional), APM, AU, BTWC, C, CCM, CEPGL, COMESA, CTBT, CWC, EAC, EADB, ECCAS, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA (observer), ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIF, OPCW, OST (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Rwanda Index
Chronology

c.14..                     Rwanda kingdom founded.
15..                       Naoro dynasty begins rule.
Aug 1884                   German protectorate.
 1 Jul 1890                Part of German East Africa (see Tanzania).
                            (effective German control only since 1897;
                             until 1899, part of the military district of
                             Tanganyika-Kivu).
1899 - 15 Nov 1907         Part of the military district of Ruanda-Urundi 
                             (see Burundi).
16 May
1916                Belgian occupation.
30 May 1919 -  1 Jan 1924  Belgium cedes Kisaka (Gisaka) region to British
                             Tanganyika.

20 Jul 1922                Part of League of Nations mandate of Ruanda-Urundi
                             under Belgium (see
Burundi).
13 Dec 1946                Rwanda forms part of United Nations trust territory
                             under the name of Ruanda-Urundi
(see Burundi),
                             administered by Belgium.

28 Jan 1961                Rwandan Republic (Republika y'u Rwanda = République
                             Rwandaise
).
UN Trusteeship retained, monarchy is
                             abolished.
 
6 Feb 1961                Authorities elected by the National Congress on 28
                             Jan 1962 are recognized by the Administering
                             Authority for Ruanda-Urundi, ordinance issued by
                             the Resident General of Ruanda-Urundi.
 1 Jul 1962                Independence upon the termination of UN Trusteeship
                             Agreement.

18 Jan 1996                English is recognized as an official language in
                             addition to Kinyarwanda and French.
 4 Jun 2003                Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda =
                            
République du Rwanda).

Hutu kingdoms
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Kings (Abami, singular Mwami)
c.1600 - c.1624            Ruganzu II Ndoli
c.1624 - c.1648            Mutara I Semugeshi
c.1648 - c.1672            Kigeli (Kigeri) II Nyamuheshera
c.1672 - c.1696            Mibambwe II Gisanura
c.1696 - c.1720            Yuhi III Mazimpaka

c.1720 - c.1744            Karemera Rwaka
c.1744 - c.1768            Cyilima II Rujugira
c.1768 - c.1792            Kigeli (Kigeri) III Ndabarasa
c.1792 - c.1797            Mibambwe III Sentabyo            (d. c.1797)
c.1797 - c.1830            Yuhi IV Gahindiro
c.1830 - 1853              Mutara II Rwogera                (d. 1853)
1853 - Nov 1895            Kigeli (Kigeri) IV Rwabugiri     (d. 1895)
Nov 1895 - Dec 1896        Mibambwe IV Rutarindwa           (d. 1896)
Dec 1896 - 12 Nov 1931     Yuhi V Musinga                   (b. 1883 - d. 1944)
Dec 1896 - 1916            Regency
                           - Kabare
                           - Kanyogera (Nyirayuhi V) (f)    (b. 18.. - d. 1933)
                           - Ruhinankiko
1911 - 10 Apr 1912         Ndungutse (in rebellion)         (b. 18.. - d. 1912)
12 Nov 1931 - 25 Jul 1959  Mutara III Rudahigwa             (b. 1913 - d. 1959)
25 Jul 1959 - 28 Jan 1961  Kigeli V Ndahindurwa             (b. 1936 - d. 2016) 
                             (from 25 Jul 1960 in exile)
Presidents
28 Jan 1961 - 26 Oct 1961  Dominique Mbonyumutwa (Hutu)     (b. 1921 - d. 1986)  MDR-PARMEH
26 Oct 1961 -  5 Jul 1973  Grégoire Kayibanda (Hutu)        (b. 1924 - d. 1976)  MDR-PARMEH
 5 Jul 1973 -  6 Apr 1994  Juvénal Habyarimana (Hutu)       (b. 1937 - d. 1994) Mil;1975 MRND;
                             (president of the Committee for Peace               1991 MRNDD
                             and National Unity to 1 Aug 1973)
 8 Apr 1994 - 18 Jul 1994  Théodore Sindikubwabo            (b. 1928 - d.c.1998?)MRNDD
                            
(president of the National Development Council)
19 Jul 1994 - 23 Mar 2000  Pasteur Bizimungu (Hutu)         (b. 1950)            FPR

23 Mar 2000 -              Paul Kagame (Tutsi)              (b. 1957)            FPR
                             (interim to 22 Apr 2000) 

Prime ministers
19 Oct 1960 -  1 Jul 1962  Grégoire Kayibanda (Hutu)        (s.a.)               MDR-PARMEH
 1 Jul 1962 - 12 Oct 1991  Post abolished
12 Oct 1991 -  2 Apr 1992  Sylvestre Nsanzimana (Hutu)      (b. 1936 - d. 1999)  MRNDD

 2 Apr 1992 - 18 Jul 1993  Dismas Nsengiyaremye (Hutu)      (b. 1945)            MDR 
18 Jul 1993 -  7 Apr 1994  Agathe Uwilingiyimana (f)(Hutu)  (b. 1953 - d. 1994)  MDR
 9 Apr 1994 - 19 Jul 1994  Jean Kambanda (Hutu)             (b. 1955)            MDR
19 Jul 1994 - 31 Aug 1995  Faustin Twagiramungu (Hutu)      (b. 1945)            MDR 
31 Aug 1995 -  8 Mar 2000  Pierre-Célestin Rwigema (Hutu)   (b. 1953)            MDR
 8 Mar 2000 -  7 Oct 2011  Bernard Makuza (Hutu)            (b. 1961)       MDR;2003 Non-party
 7 Oct 2011 - 24 Jul 2014  Pierre Damien Habumuremyi (Hutu) (b. 1961)            FPR
24 Jul 2014 -
30 Aug 2017  Anastase Murekezi (Hutu)         (b. 1952)            PSD
30 Aug 2017 -              Édouard Ngirente                 (b. 1973)            Non-party?


German Residents

1897 - 1907                the residents in Urundi
Oct 1907 - 1911            Richard Kandt (1st time)         (b. 1867 - d. 1918)
Nov 1911 - 1913            Eberhard Gudowius (acting)       (b. 1878 - d. 1945)
1913 - Dec 1913            Richard Kandt (2nd time)         (s.a.)
Dec 1913 - 17 May 1916     Max Wintgens (acting)            (b. 1881 - d. 1917)
17 May 1916 - 17 Jun 1916  Scharpes (acting)
Belgian Military residents
27 Jun 1916 - 30 Apr 1917  Gustave Eugène Henri Stevens     (b. 1866 - d. 1928)

30 Apr 1917 - Dec 1918     Gérard François Declerck         (b. 1878 - d. 1919) 
Belgian Residents
 4 Feb 1919 -  5 May 1919  Georges Mortehan (1st time)      (b. 1883 - d. 1955)
 5 May 1919 - 1920         Edouard van den Eende            (b. 1888 - d. 1947)
1920 - 28 Nov 1923         Georges Mortehan (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1924 - 18 Feb 1925         Oger Coubeau (1st time)          (b. 1885 - d. 1961)
18 Feb 1925 - 1926         H.L. Keyser (acting)
1926 - 15 Sep 1928         Georges Mortehan (3rd time)      (s.a.)
Sep 1928 - 14 Apr 1929     Oger Coubeau (acting)(2nd time)  (s.a.)
14 Apr 1929 - 14 Sep 1929  Georges Mortehan (4th time)      (s.a.)
14 Sep 1929 -  8 Jan 1930  H. Wilmin 
 8 Jan 1930 - 18 Dec 1932  Oger Coubeau (3rd time)          (s.a.)
19 Dec 1932 -  1 Mar 1935  Maurice Simon (1st time)         (b. 1892 - d. 1960)
 1 Mar 1935 -  1 Oct 1935  R. Hombert
 1 Oct 1935 -  1 Aug 1938  Maurice Simon (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1938 - 24 Jan 1939  Albert M.C. Gille
24 Jan 1939 -  9 Sep 1940  Maurice Simon (3rd time)         (s.a.)
 9 Sep 1940 - 15 Apr 1942  Jean F.G. Paradis (1st time)     (b. 1905 - d. 1955)
15 Apr 1942 -  1 Jul 1942  Léon Grauls (1st time)
 1 Jul 1942 - 21 Sep 1942  Maurice Simon (4th time)         (s.a.)
21 Sep 1942 - 15 Apr 1942  Léon Grauls (2nd time)
15 Apr 1942 -  1 Nov 1942  Jean F.G. Paradis (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1942 -  1 Dec 1943  Léon Grauls (3rd time)
 1 Dec 1943 - 24 Jan 1944  Jean F.G. Paradis (3rd time)     (s.a.)
24 Jan 1944 - 27 Feb 1944  Léon Grauls (4th time)
27 Feb 1944 - 31 Mar 1945  George Victor Sandrart (1st time)(b. 1899 - d. 1973)
31 Mar 1945 -  4 Aug 1945  Léon Grauls (5th time)
 4 Aug 1945 - 19 Mar 1947  George Victor Sandrart (2nd time)(s.a.)
19 Mar 1947 -  4 Aug 1947  Daniel Vauthier
 4 Aug 1947 - 21 Jan 1948  Marcel Édouard Antoine Dessaint  (b. 1903 - d. 1971)
                             (1st time)
28 Jan 1948 - 27 Jan 1951  George Victor Sandrart (3rd time)(s.a.)
27 Jan 1951 - 1957         Marcel Édouard Antoine Dessaint  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1954                       René-Charles Bourgeois           (b. 1909 - d. 2002)
                             (acting for 
Dessaint)
1957 - 11 Nov 1959         André Preud'homme                (b. 1915 - d. ....)
11 Nov 1959 - Jan 1962     Guillaume "Guy" Logiest          (b. 1912 - d. 1991) 
                             (special military resident)
High Representative
Jan 1962 -  1 Jul 1962     Guillaume "Guy" Logiest          (s.a.)

Note: ethnic groups, which play a preeminent role in politics, are listed in parentheses following names where known i.e. (Hutu) or (Tutsi). All kings (mwami) were ethnic Tutsi.

International Disputes: Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC), Rwanda, and Uganda - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, and efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless, 57,000 Rwandan refugees still reside in 21 African states, including Zambia, Gabon, and 20,000 who fled to Burundi in 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC and Rwanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place.

Party abbreviations: FPR = Front Patriotique Rwandais (Rwandan Patriotic Front, social-democratic, mainly Tutsi, Tutis militant to 1994, est.1987); PSD = Parti Social Démocrate (Social Democratic Party, social democratic, center-left, est.1991); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: MDR = Mouvement Démocratique Républicain (Democratic Republican Movement, mainly Hutu, 1991-2003); MRND = Mouvement Révolutionnaire National pour le Développement (Revolutionary Movement for National Development, Hutu, 1978-81 only legal party, 1975-1991, renamed MRNDD); MRNDD = Mouvement Républicain National pour le Développement et la Démocratie (National Republican Movement for Democracy and for Development, former MRND, 1991-1994); PARMEH = Parti du Mouvement de l'Emancipation Hutu (Party of the Movement for Hutu Emancipation, Hutu nationalist, 1959-1960, renamed MDR-PARMEH); MDR-PARMEH = Mouvement Démocratique Républicain - Parti du Mouvement de l'Emancipation du Peuple Hutu (Democratic Republican Movement-Party of the Movement for Emancipation of the Hutu People, ethnic Hutu, 1959-1973)






 © Ben Cahoon