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Palestinian National Authority
 
[All-Palestine Government flag
                                1948-1959]
22 Sep 1948 - 1959 All-Palestine Govt.
[Palestinian flag
                                1964-2006]
1 Dec 1964 - 17 Feb 2006

[Palestinian National
                                flag]
Adopted 17 Feb 2006


Palestinian Authority Map
Hear National Anthem
"Fida'i" (Revolutionary)
Adopted 1972 (ratified 2005)
Unofficial Anthem
"Mawtini" (My Homeland)
(1948-1972)
Palestinian National Charter
 (17 Jul 1968)
Headquarters: Ramallah
(Seat of Legislature: Gaza City
1996-2007)
(declared capital: East Jerusalem)
Currencies: Jordanian Dinar
(JOD) from 1996; New Israeli
 Shekel
(ILS) 
National Holiday: 15 Nov (1988)
Eid al-Istiklaal
(Independence Day)
Population:
West Bank: 3,176,549 (2023)¹
Gaza Strip: 2,098,389 (2023)²
GDP: $9.82 billion (2014)
(Gaza Strip $2.93 billion 2014)
Exports: $2.65 billion (2019)
(Gaza Strip $2.65 billion 2019)
Imports: $9.16 billion (2019)
(data includes Gaza Strip)
Ethnic groups: Gaza Strip: Palestinian
Arab and others 99.4%;
West Bank: Palestinian Arab and other 83%, 
Jewish 17% 
Total Police and Security Forces (West Bank): 56,000 (2010)
UNTSO Force: 380 (2023)
Merchant marine: None (2023)
Religions: Gaza Strip: Muslim (predominantly Sunni)
98-99%, Christian 0.7%, and other, unaffiliated,
unspecified 0.3% (2012);

West Bank: Muslim 80-85% (predominantly Sunni),
Jewish 12-14%, Christian 1-2.5% (mainly Greek Orthodox),
and other, unaffiliated, unspecified 0.5% (2012)
International Organizations/Treaties PLO/Palestinian National Authority: APA, CICA, IAEA (observer), ICAO (observer), ICC, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO (observer), IOC, IPU, ITU (observer), ITUC, PAM, UPU (special observer), UNRWA (observer), WHO (observer), WIPO (observer); State of Palestine: ABEDA, ACS (observer), AFESD, AL, AMF, AOAD, APM, Arabsat, AU (observer), BTWC, CAEU, CCM, CWC, ENMOD, ESCR, G-77, GAFTA, ICCt, IDB, Interpol, ISA, ISESCO, ISO (correspondent), NAM, NPT, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN (observer), UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-PA, UNIDO, UNWTO (special observer), WCO, WFTU, WMO (observer)
Palestinian
National
Authority
Index
Chronology

23 Aug 1516                Palestine part of the Ottoman Empire.
26 Sep 1918                British occupation (Palestine).
14 Jul 1922                Palestine League of Nations mandate under 
                             Britain (see Israel).
29 Nov 1947                United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine
                             approves the creation of independent Arab and
                             Jewish states.
14 May 1948                Following the establishment of Israel in most of
                             historic Palestine and a subsequent Arab-Israeli
                             war, the remaining territory is taken over by
                             Jordan (later annexing West Bank) and by Egypt
                             (administering the Gaza Strip).
22 Sep 1948                All-Palestine Government formed (recognized as the
                             government of Palestine on 15 Oct 1948 by Egypt,
                             Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen).
 1 Oct 1948                All-Palestine Government declares all of Palestine
                             independent with Jerusalem as its capital.
24 Feb 1949                Armistice Agreement between Israel and Egypt signed
                            (between Israel and Lebanon on 23 Mar 1949,
                             Jordan on 3 Apr 1949, and Syria on 20 Jul 1949)
                             formally ending the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and
                             establishing armistice line or "Green Line"
                             between Israeli and Arab forces.
24 Apr 1950                Jordan annexes the West Bank and East Jerusalem
                            (occupied by it since 17 May 1948 and under
                             military rule until 2 Nov 1949). It is divided
                             into the provinces of Hebron (Al-Khalil),
                             Jerusalem (Al-Quds), and Nablus (Nabulus) (the
                             provinces become governorates on 16 Dec 1965).
1956                       Egypt unites Northern Sinai with Gaza to form the
                             Military Government Gaza and Northern Sinai.
 2 Nov 1956 -  7 Mar 1957  Gaza Strip
occupied by Israel.
10 Mar 1957 - 1957         Gaza Strip under United Nations administration
                             (United Nations Emergency Forces [UNEF]).
1957                       Egypt enacts a Basic Law of Gaza establishing a
                             Legislative Council.
1959                       All-Palestine Government formally (de facto since
                             1953) abolished by Egypt. Gaza Strip continues to
                             be administered, but not annexed, by Egypt (which
                             on 5 Mar 1962 enacts a constitution for the Gaza
                             Strip).
28 May 1964                Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) founded. 
 5-12 Jun 1967             West Bank and the Gaza Strip occupied by Israel.
25 Sep 1969                Organization of the Islamic Conference admits 
                             Palestine, represented by the PLO.
10 Nov 1975                PLO is granted permanent observer status by the
                             United Nations.
 9 Sep 1976                PLO admitted as a member of Arab League.
31 Jul 1988                Jordan abandons claims to the West Bank.
15 Nov 1988                Palestine Liberation Organization proclaims the
                             State of Palestine independent in the West Bank
                             and Gaza
Strip, session of the Palestine National
                             Council, Algiers, Algeria (remains ineffective,
                             but receives wide
diplomatic recognition)
 4 May 1994                Palestinian Authority created to administer most
                             of Gaza Strip and parts of West Bank (Jericho
                             area handed over 13 May 1994, Gaza Strip 18 May
                             1994, Jenin 13 Nov 1995, Tulkarem 10 Dec 1995,
                             Nablus 11 Dec 1995, Qalqiliya 16 Dec 1995,
                             Bethlehem 21 Dec 1995, Ramallah 27 Dec 1995, 
                             80% of Hebron 17 Jan 1997).
 
5 Jul 1994                Palestinian National Authority (al-Sultah al-
                            
Wataniyah al-Filastiniyah) is installed, session
                             of the Palestinian National Authority, Jericho.
12 Mar 2002 - 23 Mar 2002  Israeli forces occupy Palestinian Authority 

                             areas.
29 Mar 2002 - 10 May 2002  Israeli forces occupy Palestinian Authority
                             areas.
12 Sep 2005                Israel unilateral disengagement and withdrawal of
                             settlements from the Gaza Strip.

14 Jun 2007 -              Hamas seizes control of the Gaza Strip.
27 Dec 2008 - 18 Jan 2009  Gaza War (Operation Cast Lead) Israeli incursion in
                             to northern and central Gaza Strip with the stated
                             aim of stopping rocket fire, results in more than
                             1,300 deaths.
29 Nov 2012                State of Palestine
granted non-member observer
                             state status by the United Nations.
 3 Jan 2013                Palestinian Authority renamed State of Palestine
                             (Dawlah Filastin)(not recognized by Israel).
 8 Jul 2014 - 26 Aug 2014  2014 Gaza War (Operation Protective Edge). The
                             combination of Palestinian rocket attacks and
                             Israeli airstrikes causes over 2,000 deaths.
 7 Oct 2023 - 16 Oct 2023  Hamas-led attack from the Gaza Strip occupies several
                             Israeli areas outside Gaza (including Be'eri, Erez,
                             Holit, Kerem Shalom, Kisufim, Mefalsim, Nahal Oz,
                             Netiv HaAsara, Nirim, Sufra, Urim, Zikim, and
                             part of Sderot).

27 Oct 2023 -              Israeli forces invade the Gaza Strip (Operation
                             Swords of Iron) occupying Beit Hanoun, Gaza City,
                             and Khan Younis.

East Jerusalem
Mayors
State of Palestine
Gaza Strip
West Bank
UN Emergency
Force (UNEF)

(1956-1967)
Diplomatic
Recognition List

Map of 1947
UN Partition Plan

Map of Palestinian
Refugee Camp
Map of Old Israeli
Settlements in
Gaza Strip
Map of Israeli
Settlements in
West Bank
Map of East
Jerusalem

Map of Israeli
Land Restrictions
in West Bank
and Gaza Strip

 

Note: The Palestinian National Authority (PNA) is an autonomous national entity comprising the territories of Gaza (formerly under Egyptian sovereignty) and West Bank (formerly under Jordan sovereignty), which were occupied by the Israeli Defense Forces in June 1967. As provided by the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles signed on 13 Sep 1993 and upon the Agreement signed on 4 May 1994, the PNA was inaugurated on 5 Jul 1994 as a transitional status including Palestinian interim self-governing and a phased transfer of powers and territories (towns and areas of the West Bank). Negotiations on the permanent status, which could end in a Palestinian State, are under way.

Chairmen of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Executive Committee 
10 Jun 1964 - 24 Dec 1967  Ahmad ash-Shukeiri (al-Shuqayri)   (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
24 Dec 1967 -  4 Feb 1969  Yahya Hammuda (Hamoudeh)           (b. 1908 - d. 2006)
 
4 Feb 1969 - 11 Nov 2004  Yasser Arafat ("Abu Ammar")        (b. 1929 - d. 2004)  Fatah
                            (= Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa)
                            (in exile in Jordan to Apr 1971; Lebanon 1971 -
                             Dec 1982; and Tunis Dec 1982 - May 1994)
29 Oct 2004 -              Mahmoud Ridha Abbas ("Abu Mazen")  (b. 1935)            Fatah
                             (acting [for Arafat] to 11 Nov 2004)


Presidents of the Palestinian Authority
 5 Jul 1994 - 11 Nov 2004  Yasser Arafat                      (s.a.)               Fatah
                             (Israeli detainee in Ramallah 29 Mar - 1 May 2002,
                             20-29 Sep 2002, Jan 2003 - 29 Oct 2004)
29 Oct 2004 - 11 Nov 2004  Ahmed Ali Muhammad Qureia          (b. 1937 - d. 2023)  Fatah
                             ("Abu Ala")(acting for Arafat)
11 Nov 2004 - 15 Jan 2005  Rauhi Fattouh (acting)             (b. 1953)            Fatah 
15 Jan 2005 -              Mahmoud Ridha Abbas ("Abu Mazen")  (s.a.)               Fatah
15 Jan 2009 -  2 Jun 2014  Abdul Aziz Duwaik                  (b. 1948)            Hamas

                            (in dissidence recognized by Hamas; Israeli prisoner
                             15 Jan - 22 Jun 2009, 19 Jan - 20 Jul 2012) 


Prime ministers
30 Apr 2003 -  7 Oct 2003  Mahmoud Ridha Abbas ("Abu Mazen")  (s.a.)               Fatah

                             (designated on 19 Mar 2003)
 7 Oct 2003 - 15 Dec 2005  Ahmed Ali Muhammad Qureia          (s.a.)               Fatah
                            
("Abu Ala")(1st time)
15 Dec 2005 - 24 Dec 2005  Nabil Ali Muhammad Shaath (acting) (b. 1938)            Fatah
                             ("Abu Rashid")
24 Dec 2005 - 29 Mar 2006  Ahmed Ali Muhammad Qureia          (s.a.)               Fatah
                             (2nd time)
29 Mar 2006 - 14 Jun 2007  Ismail Abdel Salam Ahmed Haniyeh   (b. 1963)            Hamas
                             (continues in dissidence, in Gaza Strip to 13 Feb 2017)
15 Jun 2007 -  6 Jun 2013  Salam Fayyad                       (b. 1952)            TWP
 6 Jun 2013 - 13 Apr 2019  Rami Hamdallah ("Abu Walid")       (b. 1958)            Fatah
13 Apr 2019 - 31 Mar 2024  Muhammad Ibrahim Shtayyeh          (b. 1958)            Fatah

31 Mar 2024 -              M
uhammad Mustafa                   (b. 1954)            Fatah


State of Palestine

[State of Palestine flag]

President of the Supreme Council of the All-Palestine Government
22 Sep 1948 - 1959         Haji Muhammad Amin al-Husseini     (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
                             (in Cairo, Egypt exile)
Presidents of the State of Palestine

15 Nov 1988 - 11 Nov 2004  Yasir Arafat                       (s.a.)                PLO
11 Nov 2004 -  8 May 2005  Vacant
 8 May 2005 -              Mahmoud
Ridha Abbas                (s.a.)                PLO
                             (acting to 23 Nov 2008) 

Chairman of the Administrative Council for Palestine
 9 Jul 1948 - 22 Sep 1948  Ahmad Hilmi Abdul Baqi             (b. 1878 - d. 1963)
Prime minister of the All-Palestine Government

22 Sep 1948 - 1959         Ahmad Hilmi Abdul Baqi             (s.a.)

                            (in Gaza then Nov 1948-1949 Cairo, from 1949 Jordan exile)


Coordinators of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT)
Aug 1967 - Apr 1974        Shlomo Gazit                       (b. 1926 - d. 2020)
Sep 1967 - Sep 1968        Dan Hiram                          (b. 1924 - d. 1987)
                            (coordinator of civil affairs in the Occupied Territories)
Apr 1974 - Feb 1976        Rafael Vardi                       (b. 1922 - d. 2016)

Feb 1976 - Feb 1979        Avraham Orly                       (b. 1930 - d. 1981)
Feb 1979 - Jan 1982        Danny Matt                         (b. 1927 - d. 2013)
Jan 1982 - Aug 1983        Rehavia Vardi                      (b. 1923 - d. 2006)
Aug 1983 - Apr 1984        Binyamin Ben-Eliezer               (b. 1936 - d. 2016)
Apr 1984 - Feb 1991        Shmuel Goren                       (b. 1928)     
Feb 1991 - Feb 1995        Daniel "Danny" Rothschild          (b. 1946)
Feb 1995 - Feb 1997        Oren Shachor                       (b. 1946 - d. 2022)
Feb 1997 - Jul 2001        Yaakov Or                          (b. 1946)
Jul 2001 - Jul 2003        Amos Gilad (1st time)              (b. 1951)
Jul 2003 - Sep 2008        Yosef Mishlav                      (b. 1952)
Sep 2008 -  6 Dec 2009     Amos Gilad (2nd time)(acting)      (s.a.)
 
6 Dec 2009 - 29 Jan 2014  Eitan Dangot                       (b. 1960)
29 Jan 2014 -  1 May 2018  Yoav "Poli" Mordechai              (b. 1964)
 1 May 2018 -  7 Apr 2021  Kamil Abu Rokon                    (b. 1959)
 7 Apr 2021 -              Ghassan Alian                      (b. 1972)

Gaza Strip

Egyptian Vice-governors (from 1952, Governors-general) of Gaza Region
27 May 1948 - 19..         Mustafa Bey al-Sawaf
                            
(military governor)
19.. - 19..                
Muhammad Rashad Danesh
c.1953 - c.1955            Abdullah Rifat
195. -  2 Nov 1956         Fuad al-Dajawi
                             (Israeli prisoner from 2 Nov 1956)
 2 Nov 1956 - Mar 1957     Mattityahu "Matti" Peled           (b. 1923 - d. 1995)
                             (Israeli military governor)
Mar 1957 - May 1958        Muhammad Hassan Abdul el-Latif
May 1958 - Mar 1961        Ahmad Salem
Mar 1961 - 30 Apr 1966     Yusuf Abdullah Agrudi (al-Ajrudi)
30 Apr 1966 -  6 Jun 1967  Abdul Munim Husni 
Israeli Military Governors of Gaza Strip

(the Commanders of Southern Command; also Military Governors of the Sinai 1967-1982)
 6 Jun 1967 - Dec 1969     Yeshayahu "Shaike" Gavish          (b. 1925)
Dec 1969 - 15 Jul 1973     Ariel Sharon                       (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
15 Jul 1973 - Oct 1973     Shmuel Gonen                       (b. 1930 - d. 1991)
10 Oct 1973 - Nov 1973     Chaim Bar-Lev                      (b. 1924 - d. 1994)
 
8 Nov 1973 - 14 Jan 1974  Israel Tal                         (b. 1924 - d. 2010)
Jan 1974 - Jul 1974        Avraham "Bren" Adan                (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
Jul 1974 - Mar 1976        Yekutiel Adam                      (b. 1927 - d. 1982)
Mar 1976 - Feb 1978        Herzl Shekhterman Shafir           (b. 1929 - d. 2021)
Feb 1978 - Jan 1982        Daniel "Dan" Shomron               (b. 1937 - d. 2008)
Jan 1982 - Oct 1983        Chaim Erez                         (b. 1935)
Oct 1983 - Mar 1986        Moshe Bar-Kochba                   (b. 1930 - d. 1992)
Feb 1986 - Aug 1986        Uri Sagi (Eisenberg)               (b. 1943)
Aug 1986 - 1989            Yitzhak "Itzik" Mordechai          (b. 1944)
1989 - Nov 1994            Matan Vilnai                       (b. 1944)
Nov 1994 - 1996            Shaul Mofaz                        (b. 1948)
1996 - Sep 1997            Shlomo Yanai                       (b. 1952)
Sep 1997 - 2000            Yom-Tov Samia                      (b. 1954)
2000 - Jul 2003            Doron Almog (Doron Avrotzky)       (b. 1951)
Jul 2003 - 12 Sep 2005     Dan Harel                          (b. 1955)

West Bank

Jordanian Military Governors of the West Bank
12 May 1948 - 1949         Masri Hikmat                       (b. 1906 - d. 1994)
Mar 1949 - 1949            Omar Matar
1949 - 1950                Aref al-Aref                       (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
                             (military governor, at Ramallah)
Sep 1949 - 1950            Raghib al-Nashashibi
              (b. 1881 - d. 1951)
                             (governor-general for Arab Palestine)
Jordanian Governors
- Jerusalem (Al-Quds) -
15 May 1948 - Jul 1948     Ahmad Hilmi Abdul Baqi             (b. 1878 - d. 1963)
                             (military governor of Jerusalem)
Jul 1948 - Jun 1949        Abdullah Yousef al-Tall            (b. 1918 - d. 1973)

                             (military governor of Jerusalem)
1949 - 1950                Ihsan
Shaker Hashem (1st time)     (b. 1908 - d. 1976)
1950 - 1951                Ahmad al-Khalil
1951 - 1956                Hassan al-Khatib
(1st time)
1956 - 1957                Adnan al-Husayni
1957 - 1960                Hassan al-Khatib (2nd time)
1960 - 1961                Ihsan Shaker Hashem (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1961 - 1961                Anwar Bey Nuseibeh (Nusaybah)      (b. 1913 - d. 1986)
1961                       Dawud Sulaiman Abu Ghazala         (b. 1932)
                             (Abu Ghazaleh) (1st time)   

1961 - 1963                Anwar Nuseibeh (Nusaybah)          (b. 1913 - d. 1986)
1963                       Fadhl Dalqamudi

1963 - 1965                Dawud Sulaiman Abu Ghazala         (s.a.)
                             (Abu Ghazaleh) (2nd time)

1965 - 1967                Anwar al-Khatib                    (b. 1917 - d. 1993)
- Hebron (Al-Khalil) -
19 May 1948 - Jun 1948     Mustafa al-Rifai
29 Jun 1948 - 1949         Saleh Rufaifan al
-Majali           (b. 1910 - d. ....)
                            
(military governor)
1948 - 1949                Ahmad Hilmi Abdul Baqi             (b. 1878 - d. 1963)
1949 - 1951                Naim Abdul Hadi
                    (b. 1912 - d. 1996)
c.1955 - c.1956            Mohamed Nazzal al-Armouti          (b. 1924 - d. 2015)
1956 - 1967                ....
- Nablus (Nabulus) -
1949 - 1950                Ahmad al-Khalil
1950 - 1951                Hassan al-Khatib

195. - 195.                Habis al-Majali                    (b. 1910 - d. 2001)
1956 - 1957                Ibrahim Hashim (Hashem)            (b. 1878 - d. 1956)
1957 - 1958                Suleiman
Abdul Razzaq Tuqan        (b. 1893 - d. 1958)
c.1959 - 1961              Mohamed Nazzal al-Armouti          (s.a.)
1961 - 1967                ....

Israeli Military Governors of the West Bank
(Judea and Samaria)
(the Commanders of Central Command)
Jun 1967 - Jul 1968        Uzi Narkis                         (b. 1925 - d. 1997)
Jul 1968 - Oct 1973        Rehavam Ze'evi                     (b. 1926 - d. 2001)
Oct 1973 - Jun 1977        Yona Efrat                         (b. 1926 - d. 1993)
Jun 1977 - Nov 1981        Moshe Levi                         (b. 1936 - d. 2008)
Nov 1981 - Oct 1983        Uri Orr (Ori Or')                  (b. 1939)
Oct 1983 - Jan 1986        Amnon Lipkin-Shahak                (b. 1944 - d. 2012)
Jan 1986 - 1987            Ehud Barak                         (b. 1942)
1987 - 1989                Amram Mitzna                       (b. 1945)
1989 - 1991                Yitzhak "Itzik" Mordechai          (b. 1944)
1991 - Mar 1993            Danny Yatom (1st time)             (b. 1945)
Mar 1993 - 12 Jan 1994     Nehemiah Tamari                    (b. 1946 - d. 1994)
Jan 1994 - Apr 1994        Danny Yatom (2nd time)(acting)     (s.a.)
Apr 1994 - Mar 1996        Ilan Birn                          (b. 1946)
Mar 1996 - May 1998        Uzi Dayan                          (b. 1948)
May 1998 - Jul 2000        Moshe Ya'alon                      (b. 1950)
Jul 2000 - Aug 2002        Yitzhak Eitan                      (b. 1952)
Aug 2002 - Jan 2005        Moshe Kaplinsky                    (b. 1957)
Jan 2005 - May 2007        Yair Naveh                         (b. 1957)
31 May 2007 - Oct 2009     Gadi Shamni                        (b. 1959)
Oct 2009 - Mar 2012        Avi Mizrahi                        (b. 1957)
Mar 2012 - Mar 2015        Nitzan Alon                        (b. 1965)
25 Mar 2015 -  7 Mar 2018  Roni Numa                          (b. 1966)
 7 Mar 2018 - 14 Jul 2020  Nadav Padan                        (b. 1967)
14 Jul 2020 - 11 Aug 2021  Tamir Yadai                        (b. 1969)
11 Aug 2021 -              Yehuda Fox (Fuchs)                 (b. 1969)

United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF)(1956-1979)

[Flag of United Nations]

Commanders of the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF)
(first in the Suez Canal sector and Sinai Peninsula, later along Armistice 
Demarcation Line in the Gaza area and the international frontier in the Sinai 
Peninsula on the Egyptian side)
Nov 1956 - Dec 1959        Eedson Louis Millard "Tommy" Burns (b. 1897 - d. 1985)
                             (Canada)(from 7 Mar 1957 in Gaza)
Dec 1959 - Jan 1964        Prem Singh Gyani (India)           (b. 1910 - d. 1988)
Jan 1964 - 18 Aug 1964     Carlos Flores de Paiva Chaves      (b. 1901 - d. 1966)
                             (Brazil)
18 Aug 1964 - 31 Jan 1965  Lazar B. Mušicki (Yugoslavia)      (b. 1926 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
 
1 Feb 1965 - 31 Jan 1966  Syseno Ramos Sarmento (Brazil)     (b. 1907 - d. 1983)
 
1 Feb 1966 - 17 Jun 1967  Indar Jit Rikhye (India)           (b. 1920 - d. 2007)
17 Jun 1967 - 26 Oct 1973  ....
26 Oct 1973 -
20 Aug 1975  Pehr Hjalmar Ensio Siilasvuo       (b. 1922 - d. 2003)
                             (Finland)(interim to 12 Nov 1973)
 1 Dec 1976 - 11 Sep 1979  Rais Abin (Indonesia)              (b. 1926 - d. 2021)
                             (acting to 1 Jan 1977)

  ¹approximately 468,300 Israeli settlers live in the West Bank (2022); and approximately 236,600 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2021).

 ²dismantlement of Israeli settlements was completed in Sep 2005; Gaza has had no Jewish population since then, formerly there were more than 6,959 (2001) Israeli settlers in the Gaza Strip.

Territorial Disputes: in Gaza Strip - borders with both Egypt and Israel are sealed with barriers, fences, and walls; Israel completed an underground anti-tunnel barrier in 2021; Israel removed settlers and military personnel from Gaza Strip in Sep 2005; Egypt constructed a barrier and established a buffer zone on its border with Gaza to halt the passage of weapons and militants through cross-border smuggling tunnels and pressure the Palestinian HAMAS terrorist group that runs the Gaza Strip; Israel completed an underground anti-tunnel barrier in 2021; in West Bank - Israel along with U.S. and several other states protest the Arab League and 145 nations' recognition of Palestine's declaration of independence of 15 Nov 1988; Israel withdrew from four settlements in the northern West Bank in Aug 2005; the current status of the West Bank is subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; in 2002, Israel began construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; as of mid-2020, plans were to continue barrier construction; since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), headquartered in Jerusalem, monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region.

Party abbreviations: Fatah = Harakat al-Tahrar al-Watani al-Filistini (Palestinian National Liberation Movement, Palestinian nationalist, social-democratic, secular, est.1959); Hamas = Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah (Islamic Resistance Movement, Islamic fundamentalist, est.1987); Ind = Independent; PLO = Munazzamat at-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah (Palestinian Liberation Organization, umbrella group for Palestinian liberation movements, includes Fatah, est.28 May 1964); TWP = at-Tariq ath-Thalith (Third Way, liberal, center-left, anti-corruption, est.16 Dec 2005)









© Ben Cahoon