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Namibia Traditional Polities

States: Baster (Rehoboth) - Damara - Herero - Nama (Khoi): Awa-Khoi ("Red Nation") - Aich-Ai ("Afrikaner") - Gami-nun ("Bondelswarts") - Kou Goa ("Swartboois") - Gei-Khauan - Hei-Khauan - Aman (Bethany) - Witbooi - Ovambo Ondonga - Ongandjera - Uukwaluudhi - Uukwambi - Uukwangali - Uukwanyama - Kavango: Gciriku - Mbukushu - Caprivi Strip: Fwe - Masubia (Subiya) -

Note
:
All these polities may be more appropriately described as "tribes." They are classified here by ethnicity. Under the South African rule the polities were recognized as the Tribal Authorities under the Native Administration Proclamation of 1928. As of 1990 there were 36 Tribal Authorities (7 Ovambo, 5 Kavango, 3 Caprivi, 5 Herero, 8 Nama, 1 or 2 for each other ethnic group).


Damara

[Damara
                          flag 1864 (Namibia)]
6 Jun 1864 - 22 Jun 1864

c.1415                     Traditional date for emergence of chiefdom.
1876 - 1880                Declared a protectorate by Cape Colony.
30 Nov 1894 - 1915         German protectorate.

Chiefs
c.1790                     Gaoseb
c.1815                     Hoeseb
c.1840                     Abraham Seibeb
c.1860 - 1894              Abraham Goreseb                    (d. 1894)
1894 - 1910                Cornelius Goreseb                  (b. 1844 - d. 1910)
1910 - 1953                Judas Goreseb                      (d. 1953)
1953 - 1977                David Goreseb                      (d. 1977)
Sep 1993 -                 Justus GaroŽb                      (b. 1942)



Nama (Khoi)

(1) Awa-Khoi ("Red Nation")

bf.1700                    Chiefdom established.

Paramount chiefs
1695 - 1710                Hab                                (d. 1710)
1710 - 1725                Khomab Hamab                       (d. 1725)
1725 - 1740                Khaub Gaib Khomaa
1740 - 1755                O-Naib Khaumab
1755 - 1770                Hanab O-Naimab
1770 - ....                Gaob Hanamab
c.1800                     Gomes (f)
1814 - 1824                Tsawub Gamab
1824 - 1840                Na-khom Gamab
1840 - 1867                Oasib Cornelis (= Nakhomab)
1867 - 21 May 1878         Gorakhab Barnabas
1878 - 1881                Gabeb Petrus
1881 - 1905                Naresib Manasse
1922 - 18 Jul 1936         HoŽb Oasmab                        (d. 1936)
1936 -  8 May 1949         Noach Tsai-Tsaib                   (b. 1868 - d. 1949)
1949 - 1986                Matheus Kooper                     (d. 1986)
 3 Dec 1988 -              Petrus Simon Moses Kooper
 

(2) Aich-Ai ("Afrikaner")

1800                       Chiefdom established.
 8 Jan 1886                German protectorate.
10 Aug 1889                Chiefdom abolished by German protectorate authority.

Chiefs 
1800 - 1823                Jager Afrikaner                    (b. 17.. - d. 1823)
1823 - 18 Aug 1861         Jonker Afrikaner                   (b. 1785 - d. 1861)
                             (= Hara-mŻb = /HŰa-/aramab)
1861 - 15 Jun 1863         Christian Afrikaner                (d. 1863)
Aug 1863 - 10 Aug 1889     Jan Jonker Afrikaner               (b. 1820 - d. 1889)
10 Sep 1996 -              Jeremiah Jagger
 

(3) !Gami-ánun ("Bondelswarts")  

21 Aug 1890 - 1915         German protectorate.

Chiefs
c.1843                     Abraham
Mar 1869 -  3 Oct 1901     Wilhelm Christian                  (b. 18.. - d. 1902)
1902 - 25 Oct 1903         Abraham Christian                  (b. 18.. - d. 1903)
1903 -  5 Mar 1910         Johannes Christian                 (d. 1910)
1918 - 1919                Wilhelm Christian, Jr.
1919 - Mar 1920            Hendrik Sneeuwe
Mar 1920 - 1920            Timotheus Beukes
1920 - 1943                Jakobus Christian                  (b. 1880 - d. 1943)
1943 -  3 Mar 1953         Nathanel Christian                 (b. 1898 - d. 1953)
1953 - 1977                Wilhelm Christian
                           + Jakobus Christian 
                           (councillors)
20 May 1977 -              Anna Katrina Christian (f)

(4) Kou Goa ("Swartboois")

Chiefs
.... - ....                Kanebeb
.... - ....                Tsauchap
.... - 1835                Haobeb
1835 - c.1864              Willem Swartbooi                   (b. 1790 - d. c.1864)
c.1864 - 1882              Abraham Swartbooi                  (d. 1882)
1882 - 1895                Cornelius Swartbooi
1895 - Mar 1898            David Swartbooi
Mar 1898 - 1905            Lazarus Swartbooi                  (d. 1905)
1986 -                     DaniŽl Luipert                     (b. 1937)


(5) Oorlam

(5-1) Gei-Khauan

20 Mar 1894 - 1915         German protectorate.

Chiefs
1814 - 13 Feb 1864         Amraal Lambert                     (b. c.1774 - d. 1864)
1865 - 1868                Lambert Lambert
1868 - 19 Mar 1894         Andreas Lambert                    (b. c.1844 - d. 1894)
1894 -  6 Apr 1896         Eduard Lambert                     (d. 1896)


(5-2) Hei-Khauan

Chiefs
1815? - c.1850             Dirk Isaak                         (d. c.1850)
c.1850 - 15 Apr 1869       Paul Goliath                       (b. c.1790 - d. 1869)
1873 - 12 Dec 1892         Jakobus Isaak                      (d. 1892)
1895 - c.1900              Diederik Goliath
c.1900 - 1925              Christian Goliath                  (d. 1925)
1925 - 1933                Andries Goliath                    (d. 1933)
1933 - 1938                Diederik Ruben Goliath             (b. 1895 - d. 1947)
1938 - 1956                Edward Isaak, Jr.                  (d. 1959)
                           + David Vries                      (d. 1956)
1956 - 1959                Edward Isaak, Jr.                  (s.a.)
1959                       Diederik Isaak
1959 - 197.                Diederik Isaak
                           + David Christian Goliath          (d. 1976)
1976 -                     Stephanus Goliath


(6) !Aman (Bethany)

21 Oct 1884 - 1915         German protectorate.

Chiefs
1804 - c.1825              Kobus Boois (Kobus Frederiks)      (d. c.1825)
c.1825 - 1842              Josef Frederiks I                  (d. c.1842)
c.1825 - 1846              Jan Boois (Jan Frederiks)          (d. 1846)
1847 - 12 Dec 1880         David Christian Frederiks          (d. 1880)
                             (= Willem Frederiks = //N‚ixab) 
15 May 1881 - 20 Oct 1893  Josef Frederiks II                 (d. 1893)
                             (= !Khorebe-gaib = //N‚ixamab) 
 3 Dec 1893 - 21 Dec 1906  Paul Frederiks                     (d. 1906)
1894 -  3 Mar 1906         Cornelius Frederiks                (d. 1907)
                             (in opposition)
1916 - 1922                Eduard Frederiks                   (d. 1922)
1922 - 1938                Josef Frederiks III                (d. 1938)
1938 - 1977                Simon Boois (= Simon Frederiks)    (d. 1977)
1977 - 1984                Jan Samuel Herero
1984 - 12 Jan 2018         David Frederiks                    (b. 1932 - d. 2018)


(7) Witbooi

1815                       Witbooi lineage founds chiefdom in Cape Province.
1863                       Chiefdom moved to Namibia.

Chiefs
1815 - 31 Dec 1875         Kido Moses David Witbooi           (b. 1781 - d. 1875)
31 Dec 1875 - 22 Feb 1888  Moses Kido Witbooi                 (b. 1808 - d. 1888)
22 Feb 1888 - 29 Oct 1905  Hendrik Witbooi                    (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
1905 - 28 Oct 1928         Isaak Witbooi                      (b. 1865 - d. 1928)
1928 -  9 Jul 1955         David Witbooi                      (b. 1871 - d. 1955)
1955 - 18 Jan 1978         Hendrik Samuel Witbooi             (b. 1906 - d. 1978)
Jul 1978 - 13 Oct 2009     Hendrik Witbooi                    (b. 1934 - d. 2009)
13 Oct 2009 -              Christian Rooi (acting)



Ovambo

(1) Ondonga

Chiefs (title Ohamba)
1650 - 1690                Nembulung lyNgwendha
1690 - 1700                Shindongo sha Namutenya gwa Nguti
1700 - c.1750              Nangombe ya Mvula
c.1750 - c.1820            Nembungu lyAmutundu                (d. c.1820)
c.1820 - 31 Jul 1857       Nangolo dAmutenya                  (b. 1790 - d. 1857)
1857 - 1859                Shipanga shAmukwiita               (d. 1862)
1859 -  7 Dec 1874         Shikongo sha Kalulu                (d. 1874)
1874 -  5 Dec 1883         Kambonde I kaNankwaya              (d. 1883)
1883 - 26 Sep 1884         Iitana yaNekwiyu                   (d. 1884)
27 Sep 1884 - 22 Jun 1909  Kambonde II kaMpingana             (b. c.1865 - d. 1909)
                             (in western Ondonga)
1884 - 14 Apr 1908         Nehale lya Mpingana                (d. 1908)
                             (in eastern Ondonga)
1909 -  8 Aug 1912         Kambonde III kaNgula               (d. 1912)
1912 - Aug 1942            Martin Nambala yaKadhikwa          (d. 1942)
1942 - 23 Sep 1960         Kambonde IV kaNamene               (d. 1960)
1960 - 1967                Martin Ashikoto
1967 -  6 Oct 1970         Paulus Elifas                      (b. 1920 - d. 1970)
1972 - 16 Aug 1975         Filemon Elifas                     (b. 1932 - d. 1975)
28 Aug 1975 - 26 Mar 2019  Immanuel Kauluma Elifas            (b. 1932? - d. 2019)
14 Apr 2019 -              Fillemon Shuumbwa Nangolo          (b. 1974)


(2) Ongandjera

Kings
1858 - 1862                Amunyela gwa Tshaningwa            (d. 1862)
1862                       Ekandjo lya Kadhila
1862                       Nakashwa -Queen
1862 - 1878                Tsheya tshUutshona                 (d. 1878)
1878 - 1887                Iiyambo yIileka                    (d. 1887)
1887 - 1930                Tshaanika Tsha Natshilongo         (d. 1930)
1930 - 1936                Sheya shaAmukwa                    (d. 1936)
1936 - 1948                Tshaanika shIipinge                (d. 1948)
1948 - 1971                Vacant
1971 -                     Japhet Malenga Munkundi


(3) Uukwaluudhi

Kings 
.... - ....                Amukwa yAmunyela
.... - ....                Nakawiila
.... - ....                Kamongwa
.... - ....                Natshilongo shIikombo
.... - ....                Shikwa shAmupindi (Kayambu)
.... - ....                Niilenge yaShipula
.... - c.1850              Uushona uEndjila
c.1850 - 1902              Shikongo shIipinge                 (d. 1902)
1902 - 1908                Niilenga yAmukwa                   (d. 1908)
1908 - 1909                Iita ya Nalitoke                   (d. 1909)
1909 - 1959                Mwaala gwa Nashilongo              (d. 1959)
1959 -                     Hosea Shikongo Taapopi Shitaatala


(4) Uukwambi

Kings
.... - ....                Nakwedhi
.... - ....                Nuyoma wAmitako
.... - ....                Neyema
.... - ....                Niigogo yaNatsheya
.... - ....                Mbulungundju

.... - ....                Nakano
.... - 1750                Mukwambi                           (d. 1750)
1750 - 1780                Nakantu kaNakwedhi
1780 - 1800                Nuukata waTshiinga
1800 - 18..                Iilonga yaNyango
.... - 1860                Tshikesho
1860                       Tshikongo
1860 - 1862                Nuyoma wIipumbu
1862 - 1863                Iipumbu ya Nangaku
1863                       Tshikesho tshEelu                  (d. 1863)
1863 - 1875                Nuyoma
1875 - 1907                Negumbo lya Kandenge               (d. 1907)
1907 - 1932                Iipumbu ya Tshilongo               (d. 1959)
1932 - 1991                Vacant
1991 -                     Herman Iipumbu


(5) Uukwangali

Queens (title Hompa
c.1750                     Mate I
1750 - 1775                Nankali 
1785 - 1800                Simbara                            (d. 1800)
1800 - 1818                Mate II                            (d. 1818)
Kings (title Hompa)
1818 - 1822                Siremo                             (d. 1822)
1822 - 1833                Mpepo                              (d. 1833)
1833 - 1870                Sikongo                            (d. 1870)
1870 - 1880                Mpasi                              (d. 1880)
1880 - 1886                Mpande -Queen                      (d. 1886)
1886 - 1910                Himarua                            (d. 1910)
1910 - 1924                Kandjimi Hawanga                   (d. 1924)
1924 - 1926                Mbuna                              (d. 1926)
1926 - 1941                Kanuni -Queen (1st time)           (d. 1971)
1941 - 1958                Sivute                             (d. 1958)
1958 - 1971                Kanuni -Queen (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1971 - 12 Apr 1977         Mbandu                             (d. 1977)
1977 - 17 Dec 2014         Daniel Sitendu Mpasi               (b. 1934 - d. 2014)
25 Apr 2015 -              Eugene Siwombe Kudumo              (b. 1970?)


(6) Uukwanyama

c.1550                     Traditional date for emergence of chiefdom.

Chiefs (title Ohamba)
.... - ....                Kambunga kaMuheya
.... - ....                Mushinoi uaKanene
.... - ....                Kavonga kaHaidongo 
.... - ....                Heita yMuvale
.... - ....                Hautolonde uaNdja 
17.. - c.1799              Shimbilinga shaNailambi            (d. c.1799)
c.1799 - 1807              Haihambo yaMukwanuli
1807 - 1811                Hamangulu yaNahambo                (d. 1811)
c.1811 - 1858              Haimbili yaHaufiku                 (d. 1858)
1858 - 1859                Haikukutu yaShinangola             (d. 1859)
1859 - 1862                Sefeni shaMukuyu                   (d. 1862)
1862 - 1882                Mweshipandeka sha Shaningika       (d. 1882)
1882 - 1884                Namadi ya Mweihanyeka              (d. 1884)
1884 - 1904                Ueyulu ya Hedimbi                  (d. 1904)
1904 -  5 Feb 1911         Nande                              (d. 1911)
1911 -  6 Feb 1917         Mandume ya Ndemufayo               (b. c.1894 - d. 1917)
1917 - 1998                Vacant
 6 Feb 1998 -  2 Nov 2005  Cornelius Mwetupunga Shelungu      (b. 1916? - d. 2005)
12 Nov 2005 -              Martha Mwadinomho ya Nelumbu (f)   (b. 1930)



Herero

bf.1700                    Ovaherero chiefdom established; styled Ehirovaherero.
1876 - 1880                Declared a protectorate by Cape Colony.
21 Oct 1885 - 30 Oct 1888  German protectorate.
21 Oct 1890 - 1915         German protectorate.
1915                       Tribe partly exterminated, partly exiled by German
                             protectorate authority.
 1 Jun 1925                Paramount chief re-installed.

Paramount chiefs (title Okahandja Herero)
c.1750 - ....              Mutjise ua Mbunga
17.. - 17..                Tjirue ua Mutjise
17.. - ....                Mukuejuva
.... - 18..                Mbondo
18.. - 18..                Peraa
18.. - 1842                Ndomo
1842 - Dec 1861            Tjamuaha ua Tjirue                 (b. c.1790 - d. 1861)
Dec 1861 -  5 Oct 1890     Maharero ua Tjamuaha               (b. 1820 - d. 1890)
1890 - 1915                Samuel Maharero                    (b. 1856 - d. 1923)
                             (continues in exile to 14 Mar 1923)
1923 - 11 Sep 1952         Frederick Maharero                 (b. 1875 - d. 1952)
                             (in exile in Bechuanaland Dec 1924 - 11 Sep 1952)
 1 Jun 1925 - 18 Jul 1970  Petrus Hosea Kutako                (b. 1870 - d. 1970)
                             (recognizes Frederick Maharero as paramount chief)
20 Jul 1970 - 27 Mar 1978  Clemens Mutuurunge Kapuuo          (b. 1923 - d. 1978)
 7 Jun 1978 -  2 Jun 2014  Kuaima Isaac Riruako               (b. 1935 - d. 2014)
 2 Jun 2014 - 31 Jul 2014 
Fanuel Tumbee Tjombe (acting)      (b. 1947 - d. 2014)
22 Sep 2014 - 18 Jun 2021  Vekuii Reinhard Rukoro             (b. 1954 - d. 2021)
22 Jun 2021 -              Mutjinde Katjiua (acting)


Kavango

Gciriku

Chiefs (title Hompa)
18.. - 1879                Muhera                             (d. 1879)
1879 - 1927                Nyangana
1924 - 1944                Shampapi
1944 - 1985                Shashipapo
15 Mar 1985 - 1999         Sebastian Kamwanga 
14 May 1999 -              Kassian Shiyambi


Mbukushu 

Chiefs (title Fumu)
bf.1850                    Sinyungu
bf.1850                    Dinyando
bf.1850                    Sihurera
bf.1850                    Kasimana
bf.1850                    Mashambo
bf.1850                    Mbungu
bf.1850                    Rukonga -Queen
bf.1850                    Diyeve I
1850 - 1895                Dimbu I
                            (also called Ndara or Libebe)
1895 - 1915                Diyeve II
1915 - 1929                Disho I
1929 - 1939                Dimbu II
1939 - 1947                Disho II
1947 - 1971                Max Makushe
1971                       Frans Dimbare

1971 - 1990                Alfons Majavero                    (b. 1934 - d. ....) 

1991 -                     Erwin Mbambo Munika



Baster (Rehoboth)
 
[Old Baster flag (Namibia)
                      1872-1915] 1872 - 1915

[Baster (Rehoboth) Flag (Namibia)] to 21 Mar 1990

1868                       Start of the Baster migration from northern Cape colony.
 1 Jan 1872                Constitution proclaimed.
15 Sep 1885 - 1915         German protectorate.
 2 Nov 1915                South Africa recognizes self-government.
 1 Dec 1924                Nicolaas van Wijk proclaims the independent Republic Rehoboth.
10 Dec 1924                South African government abolishes self-government.
 5 Apr 1925                Direct South African rule.
Mar 1976                   Self-government restored.

21 Mar 1990                Namibia abolishes self-government (Diergaardt proclaims
                             independence of Basterland which is not recognized).

Captains
1868 - 1905                Hermanus van Wyk                   (b. 1835 - d. 1905)
1905 - 25 Apr 1924         Cornelius van Wyk                  (d. 1924)
26 Apr 1924 -  5 Apr 1925  Albert Mouton
Apr 1924 -  5 Apr 1925     Nicolaas van Wijk (in opposition)
 5 Apr 1925 - 1976         Post abolished
Jun 1977 - 1979            Benjamin "Ben" J. Africa           (b. 1938 - d. 199.)
1979 - 12 Feb 1998         Johannes "Hans" Diergaardt         (b. 1927 - d. 1998)
12 Feb 1998 - Jan 1999     David Jacobus "Dap" Izaaks (acting)(b. 1933 - d. 2005)
12 Jan 1999 -  3 Oct 2020  John Charles Alexander McNab       (b. 1938 - d. 2020)


Caprivi Strip

Fwe

Chiefs
1863 - 1914                Simata Kabende Mamili              (b. 18.. - d. 1914)
1914 - 1931                Lifasi Simata Mamili
1931 - 1944                Simata Lifasi Mamili               (d. 1944)
1944 - 1971                Simasiku Simata Mamili             (d. 1971)
1971 - 1987                Richard Muhinda Mamili             (b. 1932 - d. 1987)
1987 - 1999                Boniface Bebi Mamili               (b. 1947?)
1999 -                     George Simasiku Mamili


Masubia (Subiya)

Chiefs (title Munitenge)
.... - 1845
               Liswani
1845 - 1876                Nkonkwena                      
1876?- 1909                Ntolwa (f)

1900 - 1945                Chikamatondo (regent to 4 May 1909)

1945 - 1996                Munitenge Joshua M
oraliswani
1996 -                     
Munitenge Kisco Liswani III







© Ben Cahoon