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Maldives
 
[old
                                    Sultanate of Maldives flag]
to  19..
[Maldives National flag 19xx
                                    -c.1933]
19.. - c.1933
[Maldives National flag
                                    c.1933-1953]
c.1933 - 1953
[Maldives National flag
                                    1953-1965]  
1953 - 26 Jul 1965
[Maldives
                                    flag]
Adopted 26 Jul 1965

Map of the Maldives
Hear National Anthem
"Gaumee Salaam"
(National Salute)
Adopted 1972
Former National Anthem
"Salaamathi"
(to 1948; Royal anthem to 1964)
--------------------------------------
Former National Anthem
"Canary Magu"
(tune of "Auld Lang Syne")
(1948-1972)
Constitution
(7 Aug 2008)
------------------------------------

Former Constitution

(1 Jan 1998-7 Aug 2008)
Capital: Malé
(Maale)
Currency: Rufiyaa (MVR);
 1947-1981 Maldive Islands
Rupee (MVP); 1887-1960
 Indian Rupee (INR)
National Holiday: 26 Jul (1965)
Independence Day
Population: 392,473 (2018)
GDP: $6.90 billion (2017)
Exports: $256.2 million (2016)
Imports: $2.12 billion (2016)
Ethnic groups: Maldivian (South Indian [Dravidian]) 98.5%,
Sinhalese 0.7%, other 0.8% (2000)
Total Active Armed/Police Force: 700-1,000 (2003)
India Forces: 70 (2023)
Merchant marine: 67 ships (2018)
Religions: virtually 100% Sunni Muslim (official) (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AIIB, AOSIS, APA, APM, BTWC, C, CCM, CP, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC (observer), Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OACPS, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (dialogue partner), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Maldives Index
Chronology

 4th cent.                 According to tradition, exiled prince and son of King
                             Sri Brahmaditya of the Kalinga kingdom of India
 
851                        Called the Diva Kudha (Cowrie Islands) by Sulayman
                             al-Tajir; and from 1030, as part of the Dzibat
                             ul-Mahal by Al-Biruni.
1117                       Koimala (Maanaabara) first king of the Theemuge
                             (Homa) dynasty arrives from Serendib (Sri Lanka)
                             according to legend and founds the the kingdom of
                             Dheeva Mari (Maldives).
 7 Jul 1153                Sultanate
(last Buddhist king, Dhovemi [d. 1167],
                             converts to Islam [548 AH]).
1507                       Sighted by Portuguese Capt. Lourenço de Almeida (b.
                             c.1480 - d. 1508) and called the Ilhas Maldivas
                             [Ilhas Maldive], Ilhas de Malhadio, and Ilhas Lia
                            
[together with the Laccadives [Lakshadweep]).

1507 - 1573                Portuguese protectorate (nominally to 1632). 
1518 - 1521                Portuguese occupation of Malé under João Gomes. 

1551 - 1552                Sultan Hasan IX (Dhirukusa Loka) converts to
                             Christianity and is deposed upon conversion. He is
                             subsequently known as "Dom Manoel" (d. 1583).
19 May 1558 -  1 Jul 1573  Portuguese occupation of Malé under Andreas Andre 

                             (known locally Andhiri Andhirin)(d. 1573), who
                             restores Don Manoel (s.a.) as nominal king (Manoel
                             remains in Goa).

1558 - 1632                Kings Don Manoel to 1583, Dom João 1583-1603, and
                             Dom Philippe 1603-1632 rule in exile from Goa.
                             However, real power resides with the resident
                             Regent who is the de facto Sultan. 
1573? - 1597?              Tributary to the Ottoman Empire.
c.1658 - 16 Feb 1796       Under Dutch East India Company protection from Dutch
                             Ceylon.

20 Dec 1752 -  9 Mar 1753  Malabari occupation of Malé. Sultan `Imad ad-Din III
                             is abducted by Ali Raja of Arakkal (Cannanore) in
                             the name of Hyder Ali of Mysore.
16 Feb 1796                British protected area from Ceylon, in 1867
the
                             British guarantee Maldives independence.
16 Dec 1887 - 26 Jul 1965  British protectorate (Maldive Islands).
 1 Jan 1953                Republic of Maldive Islands
 7 Mar 1954                Sultanate of Maldive Islands (restored).
 3 Jan 1959 - 30 Sep 1963  Secession of Addu and the and the southern atolls
                             (as United Suvadive Republic).
11 Nov 1968                Republic of Maldive Islands
14 Apr 1969                Name changed from Maldive Islands to Maldives.

United Suvadive
Republic
(1959-1963)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Sultans1
Jul 1692 - 16 Jan 1701     Muhammad II                         (b. 16.. - d. 1701)
16 Jan 1701 - 27 Oct 1701  `Ali VII                            (b. 16.. - d. 1701)
27 Oct 1701 - 1701         al-Hasan X                          (b. 1688 - d. 1758)
27 Oct 1701 - 1701         Regents
                           - Amir Ibrahim Shah Bandaru 
                           - Amir Muhammad Famuladeri
1701 - 20 Dec 1704         Muzhir ad-Din Ibrahim
20 Dec 1704 - 21 Oct 1721  `Imad ad-Din II Muhammad            (b. 1661 - d. 1721)
                             al-Muzaffar 
                             (regent for absent Muzhir 17 Jan 1704 - 20 Dec 1704) 
21 Oct 1721 - 25 Feb 1750  Ibrahim Iskandar II                 (b. 1708 - d. 1750)
26 Feb 1750 - 25 Jun 1757  `Imad ad-Din III Muhammad           (b. 1717 - d. 1757)
                             al-Mukarram 
                             (Malabari prisoner from 12 Dec 1752)
12 Dec 1752 -  6 Dec 1759  Amina Rani Kilagefanu (f)           (b. c.1722 - d. ....)
                             (to 25 Jun 1757 regent for `Imad ad-Din III) 
 6 Dec 1759 - 1766         `Izz ad-Din al-Hasan Badeiri        (d. 1767)
                             al-Ghazi (interim)
                             (de facto regent from 9 Mar 1753)
1766 - 22 Dec 1773         Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad             (b. c.1733 - d. 1774)
17 Dec 1773 - 22 Dec 1773  Regents
                           - Amina Kanbafa'anu (f)             (b. 1725 - d. 1774)
                           - Shams ad-Din Muhammad Iskandar    (d. 1779)
22 Dec 1773 - May 1774     Shams ad-Din II Muhammad Iskandar   (s.a.)
May 1774 - 13 Sep 1779     Mu`izz ad-Din Muhammad Iskandar     (b. c.1753 - d. 1779)
13 Sep 1779 -  2 Jun 1799  Nur ad-Din I al-Hasan               (b. c.1751 - d. 1799)
 2 Jun 1799 - 22 Jan 1835  Mu`in ad-Din I Muhammad             (d. 1835)
                             (regent for absent Nur ad-Din I from 24 Jan 1799)
22 Jan 1835 - 10 Jan 1882  `Imad ad-Din IV Muhammad            (b. 1818 - d. 1882)
10 Jan 1882 - 18 Dec 1886  Nur ad-Din II Ibrahim (1st time)    (d. 1892)
18 Dec 1886 - 1888         Mu`in ad-Din II Muhammad            (d. 1892)
1888 - 29 Nov 1892         Nur ad-Din II Ibrahim (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Dec 1892 - 20 May 1893     `Imad ad-Din V Muhammad             (b. 1884 - d. 1920)
May 1893 -  3 Aug 1893     Shams ad-Din III Muhammad Iskandar  (b. 1879 - d. 1935)
                             (1st time)
 3 Aug 1893 - 12 Mar 1903  `Imad ad-Din VI Muhammad            (b. 1868 - d. 1932)
                             (regent 21 Jul 1893 - 3 Aug 1893)
12 Mar 1903 -  2 Oct 1934  Shams ad-Din III Muhammad Iskandar  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
 2 Oct 1934 - 12 Mar 1935  Amir `Ali Muhammad Farid (1st time)
                             (chairman Council of Regency)
12 Mar 1935 -  8 Apr 1943  Nur ad-Din al-Hasan                 (b. 1887 - d. 1967)
 8 Apr 1943 -  3 Oct 1945  Amir `Ali Muhammad Farid (2nd time)
                             (chairman Council of Regency)
 3 Oct 1945 - 21 Feb 1952  Amin Abdul Majid Didi               (b. 1873 - d. 1952)
                             (elected, but resided in Ceylon)
21 Feb 1952 -  1 Jan 1953  Amir Ahmad Muhammad Amin Didi       (b. 1910 - d. 1954)  PPP
                             (chairman Council of Regency)
Presidents
 1 Jan 1953 -  2 Sep 1953  Amir Ahmad Muhammad Amin Didi       (s.a.)               PPP
 2 Sep 1953 -  7 Mar 1954  Ibrahim Muhammad Didi (acting)      (b. 1902 - d. 1981)  PPP
Sultan1
 7 Mar 1954 - 11 Nov 1968  Muhammad Farid Didi                 (b. 1901 - d. 1969)
Presidents
11 Nov 1968 - 11 Nov 1978  Ibrahim Nasir                       (b. 1926 - d. 2008)  Non-party
11 Nov 1978 - 11 Nov 2008  Maumoon Abdul Gayoom                (b. 1937)          Ind;2005 DRP
11 Nov 2008 -  7 Feb 2012  Mohamed Nasheed                     (b. 1967)            MDP
 7 Feb 2012 - 17 Nov 2013  Mohamed Waheed Hassan               (b. 1953)            GIP
17 Nov 2013 - 17 Nov 2018  Abdulla Yameen Abdul Gayoom         (b. 1959)            PPM
17 Nov 2018 -
17 Nov 2023  Ibrahim Mohamed Solih               (b. 1962)            MDP
17 Nov 2023 -              Mohamed Muizzu                      (b. 1978)            PNC


Grand viziers
(Kilege)
1883 - 1887                Ibrahim Dhoshimeyna Kilegefaanu     (b. 1845 - d. 1925)
                             (1st time) 
1887 - 1888                ....
1888 - 1899                Ibrahim Dhoshimeyna Kilegefaanu     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
1899 - 1904                ....
1904 - 31 Mar 1925         Ibrahim Dhoshimeyna Kilegefaanu     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1925 - 1932                Amin Abdul Majid Didi (1st time)    (s.a.)
Prime ministers
1932 - 1933                Muhammad Farid Didi                 (s.a.)

1933 - 1935                Amin Abdul Majid Didi (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1935 - 1939                ....
1939 - 1942                Hassan Farid Didi                   (b. 1901 - d. 1944)
                             (minister of state)
1942 - 1944                ....
29 Oct 1944 -  2 Sep 1953  Amir Ahmad Muhammad Amin Didi       (s.a.)         Non-party;1950 PPP
 2 Sep 1953 - 12 Dec 1957  Ibrahim Ali Didi                    (b. 1890? - d. 1975) Non-party
12 Dec 1957 - 11 Nov 1968  Ibrahim Nasir                       (s.a.)               Non-party
11 Nov 1968 - Aug 1972     Post abolished
Aug 1972 -  6 Mar 1975     Ahmed Zaki                          (b. 1931 - d. 1996)  Non-party
 6 Mar 1975                Post abolished

British Residents
16 Dec 1887 -  4 Feb 1948  the British governors of Ceylon
British Residents (the British High Commissioners to Ceylon) 
 4 Feb 1948 - Oct 1951     Sir Walter Crossfield Hankinson     (b. 1894 - d. 1984)
Oct 1951 - Dec 1957        Sir Cecil George Lewis Syers        (b. 1903 - d. 1981)
Dec 1957 - Jun 1962        Sir Alexander Francis Morley        (b. 1908 - d. 1971)
Jun 1962 - 1965            Sir Charles Michael Walker          (b. 1918 - d. 2001)

  1full style of ruler:
(a) to 26 Jul 1965: "Sultan of Land and of Sea, Lord of the Twelve-Thousand Islands, and Sultan of the Maldive Islands," holding both the Arabic title of Sultan and the more ancient Divehi title of Maha Radun or Ras Kilege;
(b) 26 Jul 1965 - 11 Nov 1968: "The Sovereign (or King)" (Jala'ala ul-Malik).

Party abbreviations (parties did not exist 1952-2 Jun 2005): Ind = Independent; MDP = Maldivian Democratic Party/Dhivehi Rayyithunge Demokretik Paati (center-right, liberal conservative, Islamic democratic, environmental, pro-India, est.10 Nov 2003); PNC = People's National Congress (conservative, Islamist, pro-China, split from PPM, est.31 Jan 2019); PPM = Progressive Party of Maldives (center-right, nationalist, social conservative, populist, est.17 Oct 2011);
- Former parties
DRP = Dhivehi Rayyithunge Paati (Maldivian People's Party, conservative, populist, nationalist, Islamic democratic, 21 Jul 2005-15 Mar 2023); GIP = Gaumee Itthihaad (National Unity Party, center-left, moderate social-democratic, environmental, Aug 2008-2013, merged into PPM); PPP = Rayyithunge Muthagaddim Paati (Peoples' Progressive Party, republican, nationalist, 19 Oct 1950-1954)


United Suvadive Republic
[United
                            Suvadive Republic flag 1959-1963
                            (Maldives)]
Jan 1959 - 30 Sep 1963



Map of  United Suvadive
Republic (Addu Atoll)
National Anthem
(1959-1963)

Currency: British Pound
(GBP)
Constitution
Capital: Hittadu
(Hithaadhoo)
Total Armed Forces: N/A
National Holiday: N/A
Population: 20,000
(1960)

 3 Jan 1959                Independence of Addu Atoll declared.
10 Mar 1959                Fua Mulaku and Huvadu (Suvadu) Atolls join Addu to
                             form the United Suvadive Republic.
Jul 1959                   Huvadu retaken by Maldives government.
30 Sep 1963                Republic extinguished. 


President
10 Mar 1959 - 30 Sep 1963  Abdullah Afif Didi                  (b. 1916 - d. 1993)
                             (= Elha Didige Ali Didige Afeefu)








© Ben Cahoon