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Liberia
 
[24
                                    Star Flag (1822-1836) (U.S.)
25 Apr 1822 - 9 Apr 1827
[former flag of Liberia
                                    1827-1847]
9 Apr 1827 - 16 Jul 1847
[Flag of
                                    Liberia]
Adopted 16 Jul 1847
 Map of Liberia Hear National Anthem
"All Hail, Liberia Hail!" 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 26 Jul 1847
(music 1860)
Constitution
 (6 Jan 1986)
Capital: Monrovia
(Thompson Town 1821-1824)
Currency: Liberian Dollar
(LRD); U.S. Dollar (USD) 1943-1999; British West Africa Pound (XWAP) 1916-1943; Liberian Dollar (LRD) 1847-1916; 1822-1847 British Pound (GBP) 
National Holiday: 26 Jul (1847) 
Independence Day
Population: 5,506,280 (2023)
GDP: $7.4 billion (2021)
Exports: $554 million (2019)
Imports: $1.24 billion (2019)
Ethnic groups: Kpelle 20.3%, Bassa 13.4%, Grebo 10%,
Gio 8%, Mano 7.9%, Kru 6%, Lorma 5.1%, Kissi 4.8%,
Gola 4.4%, other 20.1% (2008)
Total Active Armed Forces: 2,010 (2019)
Merchant marine: 4,311 ships (2022)
Religions: Christian 85.6%, Muslim 12.2%,
Traditional 0.6%, other 0.2%, none 1.4% (2008)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfCFTA (signatory), AfDB, AIIB (nonregional), APM, AU, BTWC, CCM (signatory), CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS, EITI, ENMOD (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WAMZ, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Liberia Index
Chronology
 
1364 - 1413                French Norman adventurers establish the trading
                             posts of Grand Dieppe and Petit Dieppe in
                             the area, these settlements are partly legendary.
1462                       Portuguese navigator Pedro de Sintra (d. 1484) calls
                             the area the Costa da Pimenta ("Pepper Coast"), or
                             the Costa dos Gros ("Grain Coast").
1602 - 1603                Dutch establish a trading post at Grand Cape Mount,
                             but destroy it a year later.
1663 - 1664                English install trading posts on the Pepper Coast.
21 Dec 1816                The Society for the Colonization of Free People of
                             Color of America (later known as the American
                             Colonization Society)(ACS) founded in Washington,
                             D.C., United States (formally dissolved in 1964).
 6 Feb 1820                First ship, the Elizabeth, departed New York for
                             West Africa carrying 88 free black settlers and 
                             ACS agent Samuel Crozer, who arrive at Sherbro
                             Island in Sierra Leone.
15 Dec 1821                Cape Mesurado Colony created by the ACS.
25 Apr 1822                Monrovia founded (as Christopolis, renamed in 1824).
15 Aug 1824                Cape Mesurado expanded into the Colony of Liberia.
 5 Jan 1839                Commonwealth of Liberia (the colonies or settlements
                             of Monrovia, New Georgia, Caldwell, Millsburg,
                             Marshall, Bexley, Bassa Cove, and Edina form a
                             united government).
 4 Apr 1839                Constitution of the Commonwealth of Liberia is
                             approved.
11 Apr 1839                Bassa Cove incorporated into Liberia.
1842                       Mississippi in Africa incorporated into Liberia.
26 Jul 1847                Independence (Republic of Liberia).
21 Aug 1848                Recognized by U.K. (ratified 1 Aug 1849)(and
                             later by France on 27 Apr 1852).
25 Apr 1857                Maryland incorporated into Liberia.
21 Oct 1862                Independence recognized by the U.S.
1892 - 1911                Boundaries officially established.
 7 Mar 1912 -  1 Jan 1936  Liberia under international financial receivership
                             of France, Germany (to 4 Aug 1917), U.K., and U.S.
24 Dec 1989 -  2 Aug 1997  First Liberian civil war.  
Jul 1990 - 29 Oct 1999     Economic Community of West African States Monitoring
                             Group (ECOMOG) deployed.
21 Apr 1999 - 18 Aug 2003  Second Liberian civil war.
19 Sep 2003 - 30 Mar 2018  United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) deployed.
Counties
Edina
(1832-1837)
Maryland
in Liberia

(1834-1857)
Mississippi-in-Africa
(1837-1842)
New Georgia
(1824-1839)
  Port Cresson/
Bassa Cove

(1832-1839)
Former Liberian
Constitutions

(1820;
 5 Jan 1839;

26 Jul 1847) 
 

Colonial Agents of the American Colonization Society
Feb 1820 - 15 Apr 1820     Samuel Crozer                      (b. 1797 - d. 1820)
                             (appointed 19 Dec 1819)
15 Apr 1820 -  2 May 1820  Samuel Bacon (acting)              (b. 1782 - d. 1820)
 2 May 1820 -  8 Mar 1821  Daniel Coker (acting)              (b. 1780 - d. 1846)
 8 Mar 1821 - 28 Jul 1821  Joseph Raphael Andrus              (b. 1791 - d. 1821)
28 Jul 1821 - Nov 1821     John Christian Wiltberger (acting) (b. 1798 - d. 1855)
Nov 1821 - 4 Jun 1822      Eli Ayres                          (b. 1778 - d. 1822)

25 Apr 1821 -  4 Jun 1822  Frederick James                    (b. c.1791 - d. 1835)
                             (acting, at Cape Mesurado)
 4 Jun 1822 -  8 Aug 1822  Elijah Johnson (1st time)(acting)  (b. 1787 - d. 1849)
 8 Aug 1822 -  2 Apr 1823  Jehudi Ashmun (1st time)(acting)   (b. 1794 - d. 1828)
 2 Apr 1823 - 14 Aug 1823  Elijah Johnson (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.)
14 Aug 1823 - 26 Mar 1828  Jehudi Ashmun (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                             (acting to 22 Aug 1822)
26 Mar 1828 -  8 Nov 1828  Lott Cary (Carey) (acting)         (b. c.1780 - d. 1828)
 8 Nov 1828 - 22 Dec 1828  Colston McGiven Waring (acting)    (b. 1793 - d. 1834) 
22 Dec 1828 - 19 Apr 1829  Richard Randall                    (b. 1796 - d. 1829)
19 Apr 1829 - 27 Feb 1830  Joseph Mechlin, Jr. (1st time)     (b. 1771 - d. 1839)
                             (acting to 14 Sep 1829)
27 Feb 1830 - 12 Apr 1830  John Wallace Anderson (acting)     (b. 1802 - d. 1830)
13 Apr 1830 -  4 Dec 1830  Anthony David Williams, Sr.        (b. 1799 - d. 1860)
                             (1st time)
(acting)
 4 Dec 1830 - 24 Sep 1833  Joseph Mechlin, Jr. (2nd time)     (s.a.) 
24 Sep 1833 -  1 Jan 1834  George R. McGill (acting)          (b. 1787 - d. 1863?)
 1 Jan 1834 - 10 May 1835  John Brooke Pinney                 (b. 1806 - d. 1882)
10 May 1835 - 12 Aug 1835  Nathaniel Brander (acting)         (b. 1796 - d. 1870)
12 Aug 1835 - 25 Sep 1836  Ezekiel Skinner                    (b. 1777 - d. 1885)
25 Sep 1836 -  4 Apr 1839  Anthony David Williams, Sr.        (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time) 
Governors
 
4 Apr 1839 -  3 Sep 1841  Thomas Buchanan                    (b. 1808 - d. 1841)
                            
(appointed 11 Dec 1838, arrived Monrovia 2 Apr 1839)
 3 Sep 1841 -  3 Jan 1848  Joseph Jenkins Roberts             (b. 1809 - d. 1876)  AP

                             (acting to 1 Mar 1842)
Presidents
 3 Jan 1848 -  7 Jan 1856  Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1st time)  (s.a.)               AP
 7 Jan 1856 -  4 Jan 1864  Stephen Allen Benson               (b. 1816 - d. 1865)  AP
 4 Jan 1864 -  6 Jan 1868  Daniel Bashiel Warner              (b. 1815 - d. 1880)  AP
 6 Jan 1868 -  3 Jan 1870  James Spriggs Payne (1st time)     (b. 1819 - d. 1882)  RP
 3 Jan 1870 - 26 Oct 1871  Edward James Roye                  (b. 1815 - d. 1872)  TWP
26 Oct 1871 -  4 Nov 1871  Chief Executive Committee
                           - Charles Benedict Dunbar          (b. 1829 - d. 1878)
                           - Reginald Augustus Sherman        (b. 1838 - d. 1894)
                           - Amos Herring                     (b. 1793 - d. 1873)
 4 Nov 1871 -  1 Jan 1872  James Skivring Smith, Sr.          (b. 1825 - d. 1892)  TWP
 1 Jan 1872 -  3 Jan 1876  Joseph Jenkins Roberts (2nd time)  (s.a.)               RP
 3 Jan 1876 -  7 Jan 1878  James Spriggs Payne (2nd time)     (s.a.)               RP
 7 Jan 1878 - 20 Jan 1883  Anthony William Gardner            (b. 1820 - d. 1885)  TWP
20 Jan 1883 -  7 Jan 1884  Alfred Francis Russell             (b. 1817 - d. 1884)  TWP
 7 Jan 1884 -  4 Jan 1892  Hilary Richard Wright Johnson      (b. 1837 - d. 1901)  TWP
 4 Jan 1892 - 12 Nov 1896  Joseph James Cheeseman             (b. 1843 - d. 1896)  TWP
12 Nov 1896 - 11 Dec 1900  William David Coleman              (b. 1842 - d. 1908)  TWP 
11 Dec 1900 -  4 Jan 1904  Garretson Warner Gibson            (b. 1832 - d. 1910)  TWP

 4 Jan 1904 -  1 Jan 1912  Arthur Barclay                     (b. 1854 - d. 1938)  TWP
 1 Jan 1912 -  5 Jan 1920  Daniel Edward Howard               (b. 1861 - d. 1935)  TWP
 5 Jan 1920 -  3 Dec 1930  Charles Dunbar Burgess King        (b. 1871 - d. 1961)  TWP
 3 Dec 1930 -  3 Jan 1944  Edwin James Barclay                (b. 1882 - d. 1955)  TWP
 3 Jan 1944 - 23 Jul 1971  William Vacanarat Shadrach Tubman  (b. 1895 - d. 1971)  TWP
23 Jul 1971 - 12 Apr 1980  William Richard Tolbert, Jr.       (b. 1913 - d. 1980)  TWP
Head of State and Chairman of the People's Redemption Council
12 Apr 1980 - 
6 Jan 1986  Samuel Kanyon Doe                  (b. 1951 - d. 1990) Mil;1984 NDP
President
 6 Jan 1986 -  9 Sep 1990  Samuel Kanyon Doe                  (s.a.)               NDP
 9 Sep 1990 - 22 Nov 1990 
Conflicting claims
                           - Prince Yormie Johnson            (b. 1952)            INPFL
                             (from 9 Sep 1990, President)
                           - Charles Ghankay MacArthur        (b. 1948)            NPFL
                              Dapkpana Taylor (in Gbarnga)
                            
(from 27 Jul 1990, head of the Provisional

                              Government; from 21 Oct 1990, President)
                           - David Nimley                     (b. 1945)            Mil/NDP
                             (from 9 Sep 1990, head of Ruling Council of State)
                          
- Amos Claudius Sawyer             (b. 1945 - d. 2022)  LPP
                             (from 2 Sep 1990, president of Interim
                              Government of National Unity; in exile)
President of the Interim Government of National Unity

22 Nov 1990 -  7 Mar 1994  Amos Claudius Sawyer               (s.a.)               LPP
                             (in exile to 22 Nov 1990)
Chairmen of the Council of State
for the Liberia National Transitional Government
 7 Mar 1994 -  1 Sep 1995  David Donald Kpormakpor            (b. 1944 - d. 2010)  Non-party
 1 Sep 1995 -  3 Sep 1996  Wilton Gbakolo Sengbe Sankawulo    (b. 1943 - d. 2009)  Non-party
 3 Sep 1996 -  2 Aug 1997  Ruth Sando Perry (f)               (b. 1939 - d. 2017)UP/Non-party
Presidents
 2 Aug 1997 - 11 Aug 2003  Charles Ghankay MacArthur Dapkpana (s.a.)               NPP
                            
Taylor
11 Aug 2003 - 14 Oct 2003  Moses Zeh Blah                     (b. 1947 - d. 2013)  NPP
Chairman of the National Transitional Government
14 Oct 2003 - 16 Jan 2006  Charles Gyude Bryant               (b. 1949 - d. 2014)  LAP
Presidents
16 Jan 2006 - 22 Jan 2018  Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (f)          (b. 1938)            UP
22 Jan 2018 - 22 Jan 2024  George Manneh Weah                 (b. 1966)            CDC
22 Jan 2024 -              Joseph Nyumah Boakai               (b. 1944)            UP

ECOWAS and United Nations Peacekeeping Missions

Commanders, Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG)
Peacekeeping Force in Liberia

Jul 1990 - Sep 1990        Arnold Quainoo (Ghana)             (b. 1939)            Mil
Sep 1990 - Feb 1991        Joshua Nimyel Dogonyaro (Nigeria)  (b. 1940 - d. 2021)  Mil
Feb 1991 - Sep 1991        Rufus Modupe Kupolati (Nigeria)    (b. 1946 - d. 2005)  Mil
Sep 1991 - Oct 1992        Ishaya Bakut (Nigeria)             (b. 1947 - d. 2015)  Mil      
Oct 1992 - Oct 1993        Adetunji Idowu Ishola Olurin       (b. 1944 - d. 2021)  Mil    
                             (Nigeria)
Oct 1993 - Dec 1993        John Nanzip Shagaya (Nigeria)      (b. 1942 - d. 2018)  Mil
Dec 1993 - Aug 1996        John Mark Inienger (Nigeria)       (b. 1945 - d. 2002)  Mil
Aug 1996 - Jan 1998        Victor Samuel Leonard Malu         (b. 1947 - d. 2017)  Mil
                             (Nigeria)
Jan 1998 - Mar 1999        Timothy Mai Shelpidi (Nigeria)     (b. 1948 - d. 2018)  Mil
Mar 1999 - Jul 1999        Felix Agho Mujakperuo (Nigeria)    (b. 1946)            Mil
Jul 1999 -
29 Oct 1999     Gabriel Atondo Kpamber (Nigeria)   (b. 19.. - d. 2016)  Mil
Commander of the Economic Community of West African States Mission
in Liberia (ECOMIL) Peacekeeping Force

 4 Aug 2003 - 30 Sep 2003  Festus Okechukwu Okonkwo (Nigeria) (b. 1951)            Mil


Special Representatives of the Secretary-General and Chiefs of Mission
of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
17 Jul 2003 - 20 Jul 2005  Jacques Paul Klein (U.S.)           (b. 1939)
16 Aug 2005 - Dec 2007     Alan Claude Doss (U.K.)             (b. 1945)
Jan 2008 - Jan 2012        Ellen Margrethe Lj (f)(Denmark)    (b. 1948)
Apr 2012 - Jul 2015        Karin Landgren (f) (Sweden)         (b. 1957)
Aug 2015 - 30 Mar 2018     Farid Zarif (Afghanistan)           (b. 1951)

Force Commanders of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
Oct 2003 - Dec 2004        Daniel Ishmael Opande (Kenya)       (b. 1943)           Mil
Jan 2005 - Dec 2005        Joseph Olorungbon Owonibi (Nigeria) (b. 1949)           Mil
 1 Jan 2006 - Oct 2008     Chikadibia Isaac Obiakor (Nigeria)  (b. 1951)           Mil
Oct 2008 - 19 Oct 2009     Abu Tayeb Muhammad Zahirul Alam     (b. 1952)           Mil
                             (Bangladesh)
Oct 2009 - 28 Nov 2010     Sikander Afzal (Pakistan)           (b. 1952)           Mil
Nov 2010 -  9 Nov 2012     Muhammad Khalid (Pakistan)          (b. 1959)           Mil
Dec 2012 - 25 Feb 2015     Leonard Muriuki Ngondi (Kenya)      (b. 1959)           Mil 
Feb 2015 - 30 Mar 2018     Salihu Zaway Uba (Nigeria)          (b. 1959)           Mil

Territorial Disputes: None.

Party abbreviations: CDC = Congress for Democratic Change (centrist, reformist, George Weah personalist, est.2005); LPP = Liberian People's Party (est.1985); NDP = National Democratic Party of Liberia (formed by Doe supporters, est.1984); NPP = National Patriotic Party (authoritarian, Taylor supporters, est.1997); UP = Unity Party (centrist, est.1985); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: AP = Administration Party (former Amer. Colon. Soc. leaders, 1840-1867); INPFL = Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (split from NPFL, Prince Johnson personalist, 1990-1992); LAP = Liberian Action Party (1985-2009, merged into UP); RP = Republican Party (democratic, TWP opponent, 1867-1876); NPFL = National Patriotic Front of Liberia (anti-Doe militant group, 1998-1997, becomes NPP); TWP = True Whig Party (government party 1878-1980, Americo-Liberian, 1869-1980)



Edina
 
Capital: Edina
Population: 200 (1836)

Dec 1832                   Edina colony of the New York and Pennsylvania Colonization
                             Societies (named for Edinburgh, Scotland).

16 Aug 1837                Incorporation into Bassa Cove.

Superintendent
1832 - 1837                William L. Weaver                  (b. 1795? - d. 1852)



Maryland in Liberia

[State of
                          Maryland in Liberia flag 1854-1857 (Liberia)]
29 May 1854 - 18 Mar 1857

Capital: Harper
Population: 400 (1843)
Constitution
 (29 May 1854 - 3 Mar 1857)

24 Feb 1831                Maryland State Colonization Society (MSCS) incorporated.
22 Nov 1833                An Ordinance for the Temporary government of the territory of the
                             Maryland State Colonization Society in Africa, called Maryland in
                             Liberia is approved, meeting of the Board of Managers of the
                             Maryland State Colonization Society, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
13 Feb 1834                Deed of purchase of land from three local rulers is concluded
                             at Cape Palmas.
13 Feb 1834 - 29 May 1854  Maryland-in-Africa colony of the Maryland State
Colonization
                             Society at Cape Palmas.

 
3 Feb 1841                Maryland in Liberia (self-governance granted).
31 Jan 1853                Establishment of independent government is approved at a
                             referendum.
29 May 1854                State of Maryland in Liberia (
the Constitution of 29 May 1853
                             established a polity under the name of Commonwealth of Maryland
                             in Liberia, but also refers to the State of Maryland in Liberia).
 
3 Mar 1857                Government of the State of Maryland in Liberia is dissolved.
25 Apr 1857                Admitted to Liberia (as Maryland county).

Governors
13 Feb 1834 - 28 Jun 1836  James Hall                         (b. 1802 - d. 1889)
 
4 Feb 1836 -  1 Jul 1836  Oliver Holmes, Jr.                 (b. 1808? - d. ....)
                             (acting [for absent Hall to 28 Jun 1836])

 
1 Jul 1836 - 28 Sep 1836  Three-Man Committee
11 Nov 1836 -  9 Jun 1851  John Brown Russwurm                (b. 1799 - d. 1851)

                             (appointed on 28 Jun 1836, arrived 11 Nov 1836)
 9 Jun 1851 -  1 Jun 1854  Samuel Ford McGill (acting)        (b. 1815 - d. 1871)
 
1 Jun 1854 -  8 Jun 1854  Joseph Thomas Gibson -Agent        (b. 1823 - d. 1886)
 8 Jun 1854 - Apr 1856     William Allen Prout                (d. 1856)

Apr 1856 -  3 Mar 1857     Boston Jenkins Drayton             (b. c.1821 - d. 1864)
                             (acting to 3 Aug 1856)



Mississippi in Africa
 
Capital: Greenville
(Sinoe 1836-1838)
Population: 79 (1838)

 1 Jun 1831                Mississippi State Colonization Society (MSCS) established.
Jan 1837                   Sinoe (from 1838, Greenville) founded as part of Mississippi
                             in Africa colony by the Mississippi
and Louisiana State
                             Colonization Societies.

 4 Apr 1839                Governor of Liberia acts as governor of Mississippi in Africa
                             by agreement with the
American Colonization Society (ACS).
31 May 1841       
        Act of union with Liberia of 10 May 1841 of the MSCS adopted
                             by the ACS.  
31 May 1841                Renamed Mississippi in Liberia (by Act of union).
1842                       Admitted to Liberia (
as Sinoe county).

Agents
Jan 1837 - Jul 1837        Daniel Johnston                    (d. 1841)
22 Jul 1837 - 10 Sep 1838  Josiah F.C. Finley                 (b. c.1807 - d. 1838)

Sep 1838 - 1838?           James Brown (acting)
Superintendent
1838? - 1839               Hanson (
Hanson)
Governors
 4 Apr 1839 -  3 Sep 1841  Thomas Buchanan
                   (b. 1808 - d. 1841)
                             (acting to 31 May 1841)
 3 Sep 1841 - 1842         Joseph Jenkins Roberts             (b. 1809 - d. 1876)
                             (acting)



New Georgia
 
Capital: Congoe Town
Population: 250 (1836)

1824                       U.S. government settles New Georgia on Stockton Creek with Congo
                             re-captives.
10 Jul 1827                Ship
Norfolk carries Africans to Liberia from the U.S. Most
                             of these re-captives had been found on the slave ship Antelope
                             seized off the coast of Florida in Jun 1820, who had been held
                             in Georgia for seven years. Settlement is named Careysburg (or
                            
Careytown), later named New Georgia.
 
6 Jul 1836                New Georgia incorporated into a township.
 4 Apr 1839                Incorporation into Liberia (part of Montserrado
county). 

Superintendents
1827 -  4 Apr 1839         ....
c.1834/35                  James Battan



Port Cresson/Bassa Cove 
 
Capital: Bassa Cove
(Port Cresson 1832-1835)
Population: 172 (1835)
141 (1841)

Dec 1832                   Port Cresson colony of the Black Quakers of the New York and
                             Pennsylvania Colonization Societies (named for Elliott Cresson
                             a founder of the Pennsylvania Colonization Society).

10 Jun 1835                Colony destroyed by Bassa natives ("the Massacre at Bassa Cove").
Jul 1835                   Bassa Cove colony founded by the Black Quakers of the Young Men
's
                             Colonization Society of Pennsylvania and the Colonization
                             Society of the City of New York.

16 Aug 1837               
Edina settlement annexed.
11
Apr 1839                Incorporation into Liberia (part of Grand Bassa county).

Agents
 
7 Mar 1833 - 21 Jul 1833  Melville Beveridge Cox            (b. 1799 - d. 1833)
Jul 1833 - 31 Dec 1833     Vacant

31 Dec 1833
- May 1834     Rufus W. Spaulding               
1834 - 18 Oct 1834         Israel Watson Searle (acting)     (b. 1810 - d. 1834) 
10 Dec 1834 - Jun 1835     Edward Y. Hankinson (Hankingson)

Jun 1835 -  1 Jan 1836     Vacant
Governors
 
1 Jan 1836 -  4 Aug 1837  Thomas Buchanan                   (b. 1808 - d. 1841)
 4 Aug 1837 - Jun 1838     John J. Matthias                  (b. 1796 - d. 1861)
Jun 1838 - 11 Apr 1839     Wesley A. Johnson (acting)        (b. 1813 - d. 1844)






Ben Cahoon