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Liberia
 
[24
                                    Star Flag (1822-1836) (U.S.)
25 Apr 1822 - 9 Apr 1827
[former flag of Liberia
                                    1827-1847]
9 Apr 1827 - 16 Jul 1847
[Flag of
                                    Liberia]
Adopted 16 Jul 1847
 Map of Liberia Hear National Anthem
"All Hail, Liberia Hail!" 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 26 Jul 1847
(music 1860)
Constitution
 (6 Jan 1986)
Capital: Monrovia
(Thompson Town 1821-1824)
Currency: Liberian Dollar
(LRD); U.S. Dollar (USD) 1943-1999; British West Africa Pound (XWAP) 1916-1943; Liberian Dollar (LRD) 1847-1916; 1822-1847 British Pound (GBP) 
National Holiday: 26 Jul (1847) 
Independence Day
Population: 4,809,768 (2018)
GDP: $6.11 billion (2017)
Exports: $260.6 million (2017)
Imports: $1.17 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Kpelle 20.3%, Bassa 13.4%, Grebo 10%,
Gio 8%, Mano 7.9%, Kru 6%, Lorma 5.1%, Kissi 4.8%,
Gola 4.4%, other 20.1% (2008)
Total Active Armed Forces: 2,400 (2010)
Merchant marine: 3,321 ships (2018)
Religions: Christian 85.6%, Muslim 12.2%,
Traditional 0.6%, other 0.2%, none 1.4% (2008)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfCFTA (signatory), AfDB, AIIB (applicant), APM, AU, BTWC, CCM (signatory), CEN-SAD, CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS, EITI (suspended), ENMOD (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU (suspended), IRENA (signatory), ISA, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WAMZ, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Liberia Index
Chronology
 
1364 - 1413                French Norman adventurers establish the trading
                             posts of Grand Dieppe and Petit Dieppe in
                             the area, these settlements are partly legendary.
1462                       Portuguese navigator Pedro de Sintra calls the
                             area the Costa da Pimenta (Pepper Coast), or
                             the Costa dos Grãos (Grain Coast).
1602 - 1603                Dutch establish a trading post at Grand Cape Mount,
                             but destroy it a year later.
1663 - 1664                English install trading posts on the Pepper Coast.
21 Dec 1816                The Society for the Colonization of Free People of
                             Color of America (commonly known as the American
                             Colonization Society)(ACS) founded in Washington,
                             D.C.
 6 Feb 1820                First ship, the Elizabeth, departed New York for
                             West Africa carrying 88 free black settlers and 
                             ACS agent Samuel A. Crozer, who arrive at Sherbro
                             Island in Sierra Leone.
15 Dec 1821                Cape Mesurado Colony created by the ACS.
25 Apr 1822                Monrovia founded (as Christopolis, renamed in 1824).
15 Aug 1824                Cape Mesurado expanded into the Colony  of Liberia.
 5 Jan 1839                Commonwealth of Liberia (the colonies or settlements
                             of Monrovia, New Georgia, Caldwell, Millsburg,
                             Marshall, Bexley, Bassa Cove, and Edina form a
                             united government).
 4 Apr 1839                Constitution of the Commonwealth of Liberia is
                             approved.
1842                       Mississippi-in-Liberia incorporated into Liberia.
26 Jul 1847                Independence (Republic of Liberia).
21 Aug 1848                Recognized by U.K. (ratified 1 Aug 1849)(and
                             later by France on 27 Apr 1852).
25 Apr 1857                Maryland incorporated into Liberia
21 Oct 1862                Independence recognized by the U.S.
1892 - 1911                Boundaries officially established.
 7 Mar 1912 -  1 Jan 1936  Liberia under international financial receivership
                             of France, Germany (to 4 Aug 1917), U.K., and U.S.
24 Dec 1989 -  2 Aug 1997  First Liberian civil war.  
21 Apr 1999 - 18 Aug 2003  Second Liberian civil war.
Counties
Edina
(1832-1837)
Maryland
in Liberia

(1834-1857)
Mississippi-in-Africa
(1837-1842)
New Georgia
(1824-1839)
  Port Cresson/
Bassa Cove

(1832-1839)
Former Liberian
Constitutions

(1820;
 5 Jan 1839;

26 Jul 1847) 
 

Colonial Agents
Feb 1820 - 15 Apr 1820     Samuel A. Crozer                   (d. 1820)
                             (appointed 19 Dec 1819)
15 Apr 1820 -  2 May 1820  Samuel Bacon (acting)              (b. 1790 - d. 1820)
 2 May 1820 -  8 Mar 1821  Daniel Coker (acting)              (b. 1780 - d. 1846)
 8 Mar 1821 - 28 Jul 1821  Joseph Raphael Andrus              (b. 1791 - d. 1821)
28 Jul 1821 - Nov 1821     John Christian Wiltberger (acting) (b. 1798 - d. 1855)
Nov 1821 - 4 Jun 1822      Eli Ayres                          (b. 1778 - d. 1822)

25 Apr 1821 -  4 Jun 1822  Frederick James                    (b. c.1791 - d. 1835)
                             (acting at Cape Mesurado)
 4 Jun 1822 -  8 Aug 1822  Elijah Johnson (1st time)(acting)  (b. 1787 - d. 1849)
 8 Aug 1822 -  2 Apr 1823  Jehudi Ashmun (1st time)(acting)   (b. 1794 - d. 1828)
 2 Apr 1823 - 14 Aug 1823  Elijah Johnson (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.)
14 Aug 1823 - 26 Mar 1828  Jehudi Ashmun (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                             (acting to 22 Aug 1822)
26 Mar 1828 -  8 Nov 1828  Lott Carey (acting)                (b. c.1780 - d. 1828)
 8 Nov 1828 - 22 Dec 1828  Colston McGiven Waring (acting)    (b. 1793 - d. 1834) 
22 Dec 1828 - 19 Apr 1829  Richard Randall                    (b. 1796 - d. 1829)
19 Apr 1829 - 27 Feb 1830  Joseph Mechlin, Jr. (1st time)     (b. c.1771 - d. 1839)
                             (acting to 14 Sep 1829)
27 Feb 1830 - 12 Apr 1830  John Wallace Anderson (acting)     (b. 1802 - d. 1830)
13 Apr 1830 -  4 Dec 1830  Anthony David Williams, Sr.        (b. c.1799 - d. 1861)
                             (1st time)
(acting)
 4 Dec 1830 - 24 Sep 1833  Joseph Mechlin, Jr. (2nd time)     (s.a.) 
24 Sep 1833 -  1 Jan 1834  George R. McGill (acting)          (b. 1787 - d. 1863?)
 1 Jan 1834 - 10 May 1835  John Brooke Pinney                 (b. 1806 - d. 1882)
10 May 1835 - 12 Aug 1835  Nathaniel Brander (acting)         (b. 1796 - d. 1870)
12 Aug 1835 - 25 Sep 1836  Ezekiel Skinner                    (b. 1777 - d. 1885)
25 Sep 1836 -  4 Apr 1839  Anthony David Williams, Sr.        (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time) 
Governors
 
4 Apr 1839 -  3 Sep 1841  Thomas Buchanan                    (b. 1808 - d. 1841)
                            
(appointed 11 Dec 1838, arrived Monrovia 2 Apr 1839)
 3 Sep 1841 -  3 Jan 1848  Joseph Jenkins Roberts             (b. 1809 - d. 1876)  AP

                             (acting to 1 Mar 1842)
Presidents
 3 Jan 1848 -  7 Jan 1856  Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1st time)  (s.a.)               AP
 7 Jan 1856 -  4 Jan 1864  Stephen Allen Benson               (b. 1816 - d. 1865)  AP
 4 Jan 1864 -  6 Jan 1868  Daniel Bashiel Warner              (b. 1815 - d. 1880)  AP
 6 Jan 1868 -  3 Jan 1870  James Spriggs Payne (1st time)     (b. 1819 - d. 1882)  RP
 3 Jan 1870 - 26 Oct 1871  Edward James Roye                  (b. 1815 - d. 1872)  TWP
26 Oct 1871 -  4 Nov 1871  Chief Executive Committee
                           - Charles Benedict Dunbar          (b. c.1831 - d. 1878)
                           - Reginald Augustus Sherman        (b. 1838 - d. 1894)
                           - Amos Herring                     (b. c.1793 - d. 1873)
 4 Nov 1871 -  1 Jan 1872  James Skivring Smith, Sr.          (b. 1825 - d. 1892)  TWP
 1 Jan 1872 -  3 Jan 1876  Joseph Jenkins Roberts (2nd time)  (s.a.)               RP
 3 Jan 1876 -  7 Jan 1878  James Spriggs Payne (2nd time)     (s.a.)               RP
 7 Jan 1878 - 20 Jan 1883  Anthony William Gardner            (b. 1820 - d. 1885)  TWP
20 Jan 1883 -  7 Jan 1884  Alfred Francis Russell             (b. 1817 - d. 1884)  TWP
 7 Jan 1884 -  4 Jan 1892  Hilary Richard Wright Johnson      (b. 1837 - d. 1901)  TWP
 4 Jan 1892 - 12 Nov 1896  Joseph James Cheeseman             (b. 1843 - d. 1896)  TWP
12 Nov 1896 - 11 Dec 1900  William David Coleman              (b. 1842 - d. 1908)  TWP 
11 Dec 1900 -  4 Jan 1904  Garretson Warner Gibson            (b. 1832 - d. 1910)  TWP

 4 Jan 1904 -  1 Jan 1912  Arthur Barclay                     (b. 1854 - d. 1938)  TWP
 1 Jan 1912 -  5 Jan 1920  Daniel Edward Howard               (b. 1861 - d. 1935)  TWP
 5 Jan 1920 -  3 Dec 1930  Charles Dunbar Burgess King        (b. 1871 - d. 1961)  TWP
 3 Dec 1930 -  3 Jan 1944  Edwin James Barclay                (b. 1882 - d. 1955)  TWP
 3 Jan 1944 - 23 Jul 1971  William Vacanarat Shadrach Tubman  (b. 1895 - d. 1971)  TWP
23 Jul 1971 - 12 Apr 1980  William Richard Tolbert, Jr.       (b. 1913 - d. 1980)  TWP
12 Apr 1980 -  9 Sep 1990  Samuel Kanyon Doe                  (b. 1951 - d. 1990) Mil:1984 NDP
                             (head of state and chairman of People's Redemption
                            
Council; from 6 Jan 1986, President)
 9 Sep 1990 - 22 Nov 1990  Conflicting claims
                           - Prince Yormie Johnson            (b. 1952)            INPFL
                             (9 Sep 1990 - 1990, President)
                           - Charles Ghankay MacArthur        (b. 1948)            NPFL
                              Dapkpana Taylor (in Gbarnga)
                            
(from 27 Jul 1990, head of the provisional

                              government; from 21 Oct 1990, President)
                           - David Nimley                     (b. 1945)            Mil/NDP
                             (from 9 Sep 1990, head of ruling council of state)
President of the Interim Government of National Unity
 2 Sep 1990 -  7 Mar 1994  Amos Claudius Sawyer               (b. 1945)            LPP
                             (in exile to 22 Nov 1990)
Chairmen of the Council of State

 7 Mar 1994 -  1 Sep 1995  David Donald Kpormakpor            (b. 1944 - d. 2010)  Non-party
 1 Sep 1995 -  3 Sep 1996  Wilton Gbakolo Sengbe Sankawulo    (b. 1943 - d. 2009)  Non-party
 3 Sep 1996 -  2 Aug 1997  Ruth Sando Perry (f)               (b. 1939 - d. 2017)UP/Non-party
Presidents
 2 Aug 1997 - 11 Aug 2003  Charles Ghankay MacArthur Dapkpana (s.a.)               NPP
                            
Taylor
11 Aug 2003 - 14 Oct 2003  Moses Zeh Blah                     (b. 1947 - d. 2013)  NPP
Chairman of the National Transitional Government
14 Oct 2003 - 16 Jan 2006  Charles Gyude Bryant               (b. 1949 - d. 2014)  LAP
Presidents
16 Jan 2006 - 22 Jan 2018  Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (f)          (b. 1938)            UP
22 Jan 2018 -              George Manneh Weah                 (b. 1966)            CDC

Territorial Disputes: As the UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) continues to drawdown prior to the 1 Mar 2018 closure date, the peacekeeping force is being reduced to 434 soldiers and two police units; some Liberian refugees still remain in Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, and Ghana; Liberia shelters 8,804 Ivoirian refugees, as of 2019.

Party abbreviations: CDC = Congress for Democratic Change (centrist, reformist, George Weah personalist, est.2005); LPP = Liberian People's Party (est.1985); NDP = National Democratic Party of Liberia (formed by Doe supporters, est.1984); NPP = National Patriotic Party (authoritarian, Taylor supporters, est.1997); UP = Unity Party (centrist, est.1985); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: AP = Administration Party (former Amer. Colon. Soc. leaders, 1840-1867); INPFL = Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (split from NPFL, Prince Johnson personalist, 1990-1992); LAP = Liberian Action Party (1985-2009, merged into UP); RP = Republican Party (democratic, TWP opponent, 1867-1876); NPFL = National Patriotic Front of Liberia (anti-Doe militant group, 1998-1997, becomes NPP); TWP = True Whig Party (government party 1878-1980, Americo-Liberian, 1869-1980)



Edina
 
Capital: Edina
Population: 200 (1836)

1832                       Edina colony of the New York and Pennsylvania Colonization
                             Societies.

1837                       Incorporation into Bassa Cove.

Superintendent
1832 - 1837                William L. Weaver                  (b. 1795? - d. 1852)



Maryland in Liberia

[State of
                          Maryland in Liberia flag 1854-1857 (Liberia)]
29 May 1854 - 18 Mar 1857

Capital: Harper
Population: 400 (1843)
Constitution
 (29 May 1854 - 3 Mar 1857)

24 Feb 1831                Maryland State Colonization Society (MSCS) incorporated.
22 Nov 1833                An Ordinance for the Temporary government of the territory of the
                             Maryland State Colonization Society in Africa, called Maryland in
                             Liberia is approved, meeting of the Board of Managers of the
                             Maryland State Colonization Society, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
13 Feb 1834                Deed of purchase of land from three local rulers is concluded
                             at Cape Palmas.
13 Feb 1834 - 29 May 1854  Maryland-in-Africa colony of the Maryland State
Colonization
                             Society at Cape Palmas.

 
3 Feb 1841                Maryland in Liberia (self-governance granted).
31 Jan 1853                Establishment of independent government is approved at a referendum.
29 May 1854                State of Maryland in Liberia (
the Constitution of 29 May 1853
                             established a polity under the name of Commonwealth of Maryland
                             in Liberia, but also refers to the State of Maryland in Liberia).
 
3 Mar 1857                Government of the State of Maryland in Liberia is dissolved.
25 Apr 1857                Admitted to Liberia (as Maryland county).

Governors
13 Feb 1834 - 28 Jun 1836  James Hall                         (b. 1802 - d. 1889)
18 Mar 1836 - 11 Nov 1836  Oliver W. Holmes, Jr.
                             (acting [for absent Hall to 28 Jun 1836])

11 Nov 1836 -  9 Jun 1851  John Brown Russwurm                (b. 1799 - d. 1851)
                             (appointed on 28 Jun 1836)
 9 Jun 1851 -  1 Jun 1854  Samuel Ford McGill (acting)        (b. 1818 - d. 1871)
 
1 Jun 1854 -  8 Jun 1854  Joseph Thomas Gibson -Agent        (b. 1823 - d. 1886)
 8 Jun 1854 - 17 Dec 1855  William Allen Prout                (d. 1856)

17 Dec 1855 -  3 Mar 1857  Boston Jenkins Drayton             (b. c.1821 - d. 1864)
                             (acting to 3 Aug 1856)



Mississippi-in-Africa
 
Capital: Greenville
(Sinoe 1836-1838)
Population: 79 (1838)

 1 Jun 1831                Mississippi State Colonization Society (MSCS) established.
Jan 1837                   Sinoe (from 1838, Greenville) founded as part of Mississippi-
                             in-Africa colony by the Mississippi
and Louisiana State
                             Colonization Societies.

Jun 1839                   Governor of Liberia made governor of Mississippi-in-Africa.
18..                       Renamed Mississippi-in-Liberia.
31 May 1841       
        Act of union with Liberia adopted by the MSCS (MSCS adopts the
                             American Colonization Society charter).  
1842                       Admitted to Liberia (
as Sinoe county).

Chief magistrates
Jan 1837 - Jul 1837        Daniel Johnston (agent)            (d. 1841)
22 Jul 1837-c.10 Sep 1838  Josiah F.C. Finley                 (b. c.1807 - d. 1838)

Sep 1838 - 1838?           James Brown (acting)
1838? - 1839               Hansen (Hanson)(superintendent) 
Governor
Jun 1839 - 1842            Thomas Buchanan
                   (b. 1808 - d. 1841)



New Georgia
 
Capital: Congoe Town
Population: 250 (1836)

1824                       U.S. government settles New Georgia on Stockton Creek with Congo
                             recaptives.
10 Jul 1827                Ship
Norfolk carries Africans to Liberia from the U.S. Most
                             of these recaptives had been found on the slave ship Antelope
                             seized off the coast of Florida in Jun 1820, who had been held
                             in Georgia for seven years. Settlement is named Careysburg (or
                            
Careytown), later named New Georgia.
 
6 Jul 1836                New Georgia incorporated into a township.
 4 Apr 1839                Incorporation into Liberia (part of Montserrado
county). 

Superintendents
1824 -  4 Apr 1839         ....
c.1834/35                  James Battan



Port Cresson/Bassa Cove 
 
Capital: Port Cresson
(Bassa Cove 1832-35)
Population: 150 (1836)
440 (1841)

Dec 1832                   Port Cresson colony of the Black Quakers of the New York
                             and Pennsylvania Colonization Societies.
Jun 1835                   Colony destroyed by Bassa natives.
Jul 1835                   Bassa Cove colony founded by Black Quakers of the Young Men's
                             Colonization Society of Pennsylvania.
1837                       Edina settlement annexed.
 
4 Apr 1839                Incorporation into Liberia (part of Grand Bassa county).

Governors
Dec 1832 - Jul 1833        Melville Beveridge Cox (acting)   (b. 1799 - d. 1833)
Jul 1833 -  31 Dec 1833    Vacant
 
1 Jan 1834 - May 1834     Rufus Spaulding                   (d. 1834)
1834 (weeks)               Israel Watson Searle (agent)      (b. 1810 - d. 1834) 
Dec 1834 - Jun 1835        Edward Y. Hankinson (Hankingson)

 
1 Jan 1836 -  4 Aug 1837  Thomas Buchanan                   (b. 1808 - d. 1841)
 4 Aug 1837 - Jun 1838     John J. Matthias                  (b. 1796 - d. 1861)
Jun 1838 -  4 Apr 1839     Wesley A. Johnson (acting)        (b. 1813 - d. 1844)






© Ben Cahoon