World Statesmen.org HOME >

 







 
 

Burundi
 
[Possible Royal flag Burundi
                                    1959?-1962]
1959? - 1962 Possible Royal Flag
 
[Flag
                                    Burundi 1962-1966]
30 Mar 1962 - 29 Nov 1966
 
[Flag
                                    of Burundi in 1966-1967]
29 Nov 1966 - 28 Jun 1967
 
[Flag of
                                    Burundi]
Adopted 28 Jun 1967

 

Map of Burundi Hear National Anthem
"Burundi Bwâcu"
(Our Beloved Burundi)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted Jun 1962
Constitution
(7 Jun 2018)
---------------------------
Former Constitutions
(18 Mar 2005 - 7 Jun 2018;
13 Mar 1992 - 6 Jun 1998;
1961, 1962, 1974, 1981, 2001)
Capital: Gitega
Economic Capital: Bujumbura
(Bujumbura
1962-16 Jan 2019;
Usumbura 1922-1962;
Kitega c.1680-1966)
Currency: Burundi Franc (BIF);
1960-1964 Ruanda and Urundi
 Franc (BRIF); 1919-1960
Belgian Congo Franc (CEF)
National Holiday: 1 Jul (1962)
Fête de l'Indépendence
(Independence Day)
Population: 11,844,520 (2018)
GDP: $8.00 billion (2017)
Exports: $119 million (2017)
Imports: $603.8 million (2017)
Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 80.9%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 15.6%,
Lingala 1.6%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, other 0.9% (incl. Europeans
3,000 and  South Asians 2,000) (2000)
Total Armed Forces: 30,050 (2018)
Merchant marine: None (2017)
Religions: Roman Catholic 55.7%, Protestant 9.8%, Pentecostal
  9%, Anglican 6.4%, other Christian 7%, Sunni Muslim 2.5%,
  ethnoreligionist 4.9%, other 0.3%, unknown 4.5% (2015)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfCFTA (signatory), AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, C (applicant), CCM, CEEAC, CEPGL, COMESA, CTBT (signatory), CWC, EAC, EADB (applicant), ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT (signatory), OIF, OPCW, OST (signatory), UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Burundi Index
Chronology

14..                       Karemera dynasty begins rule.
....                       Baganwa dynasty replaces the Karemera.
c.1680                     Burundi kingdom founded.
Aug 1884                   German protectorate.
 1 Jul 1890                Part of German East Africa (effective German
                             control only since 1896)(see under Tanzania).
24 May 1903                Forced to recognize German authority.
17 Jun 1916                Belgian occupation.
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandate (Ruanda-Urundi) under
                             Belgium.
13 Dec 1946                Burundi forms part of a United Nations trust
                             territory under the name of Ruanda-Urundi,
                             administered by Belgium.
21 Dec 1961                Autonomy
30 Jan 1962                Kirundi and French are recognized as official
                             languages.
 1 Jul 1962                Independence upon the termination of UN Trusteeship
                             Agreement (Kingdom of Burundi)(Ingoma y'Uburundi =
                             [from 30 Jan 1962] Royaume du Burundi).
28 Nov 1966                Republic of Burundi (Repuburika y'Uburundi =
                            
République du Burundi).

Martyazo
(1972)
Ruanda-Urundi
(1892-1962)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Kings (title Umwami)¹
c.1680 - c.1709            Ntare III Rushatsi                 (d. c.1709)
c.1709 - c.1739            Mwezi III Ndagushimiye             (d. c.1739)
c.1739 - c.1767            Mutaga III Senyamwiza              (d. c.1767)             
c.1767 - c.1796            Mwambutsa III Syarushambo Butama   (d. c.1796)
c.1796 - c.1850            Ntare IV Rutaganzwa Rugamba        (d. c.1850)
c.1850 - 21 Aug 1908       Mwezi IV Gisabo¹                   (b. 1840 - d. 1908)
c.1852 - 185.              Ndivarije -Regent
c.1860 -  9 May 1905       Macoonco (in rebellion)²           (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
c.1860 - Apr 1906          Cyilima (in rebellion)²
1908 - 30 Nov 1915         Mutaga IV Mbikije                  (b. 1903 - d. 1915)
1908 - 1915                Regency
                           - Nidi Ririkumutima (f)(1st time)  (d. 1917)      
                           - Ntarugera (1st time)             (d. 1921)
                           - Nduwumwe (1st time)              (d. 1958)
30 Nov 1915 -  8 Jul 1966  Mwambutsa IV (Charles Bangilicenge)(b. 1912 - d. 1977)
1915 - 28 Aug 1929         Regency
                           - Ngezamayo (to 1915)
                           - Nidi Ririkumutima (f)(2nd time)      (s.a.)     
                              (to 28 Jul 1917) 
                           - Ntarugera (2nd time)(to 1921)    (s.a.)
                           - Nduwumwe (2nd time)(to 19..)     (s.a.)
                           - Karabona                         (d. af.1929)
                           - Mbanzabugabo (from 1922)         (d. 1930)
                           - Pierre Baranyanka (from 1923)    (b. 1890 - d. 1973)
 8 Jul 1966 -  1 Sep 1966  Prince Charles Ndizeye (acting)    (b. 1947 - d. 1972)
                             (Head of State)
 1 Sep 1966 - 28 Nov 1966  Ntare V (Charles Ndizeye)          (s.a.)
Presidents
28 Nov 1966 -  1 Nov 1976  Michel Micombero (Tutsi)           (b. 1940 - d. 1983)  Mil/UPRONA
 2 Nov 1976 -  3 Sep 1987  Jean-Baptiste Bagaza (Tutsi)       (b. 1946 - d. 2016)  Mil;1980
                             (president of the Supreme Revolutionary               UPRONA
                             Council to 9 Nov 1976)
 3 Sep 1987 - 10 Jul 1993  Pierre Buyoya (1st time)(Tutsi)    (b. 1949 - d. 2020)  Mil/UPRONA
                             (president of the Military Committee for National
                             Salvation to 9 Sep 1987)
10 Jul 1993 - 21 Oct 1993  Melchior Ndadaye (Hutu)            (b. 1953 - d. 1993)  FRODEBU 
21 Oct 1993 - 27 Oct 1993  François Ngeze (Hutu)              (b. 1947)            UPRONA
                             (chairman Committee of Public Salvation, in rebellion)
27 Oct 1993 -  5 Feb 1994  Sylvie Kinigi (f)(acting)(Tutsi)   (b. 1953)            UPRONA
 5 Feb 1994 -  6 Apr 1994  Cyprien Ntaryamira (Hutu)          (b. 1955 - d. 1994)  FRODEBU 
 6 Apr 1994 - 25 Jul 1996  Sylvestre Ntibantunganya (Hutu)    (b. 1956)            FRODEBU 
                             (interim to 1 Oct 1994)
25 Jul 1996 - 30 Apr 2003  Pierre Buyoya (2nd time)(Tutsi)    (s.a.)               Mil/UPRONA
                             (provisional to 11 Jun 1998)
30 Apr 2003 - 26 Aug 2005  Domitien Ndayizeye (Hutu)          (b. 1953)            FRODEBU 
26 Aug 2005 -  8 Jun 2020  Pierre Nkurunziza (Hutu)           (b. 1964 - d. 2020)  CNDD-FDD
13 May 2015 - 15 May 2015  Godefroid Niyombare (Hutu)         (b. 1969)            Mil
                             (head of transitional committee, in rebellion)
 8 Jun 2020 - 18 Jun 2020  Vacant³
18 Jun 2020 -              Évariste Ndayishimiye (Hutu)       (b. 1968)            CNDD-FDD


Prime ministers
26 Jan 1961 - 28 Sep 1961  Joseph Cimpaye (Hutu)              (b. 1932 - d. 1972)  UPP
28 Sep 1961 - 13 Oct 1961  Prince Louis Rwagasore (Tutsi)     (b. 1932 - d. 1961)  UPRONA
20 Oct 1961 - 10 Jun 1963  André Muhirwa (Tutsi)              (b. 1920 - d. 2003)  UPRONA
18 Jun 1963 -  6 Apr 1964  Pierre Ngendandumwe (Hutu)         (b. 1930 - d. 1965)  UPRONA
                             (1st time)
 6 Apr 1964 -  7 Jan 1965  Albin Nyamoya (1st time)(Hutu)     (b. 1924 - d. 2001)  UPRONA
 7 Jan 1965 - 15 Jan 1965  Pierre Ngendandumwe (Hutu)         (s.a.)               UPRONA
                             (2nd time)
15 Jan 1965 - 26 Jan 1965  Pié Masumbuko (acting)(Tutsi)      (b. 1931)            UPRONA
26 Jan 1965 - 30 Sep 1965  Joseph Bamina (Hutu)               (b. 1925 - d. 1965)  UPRONA
13 Oct 1965 -  8 Jul 1966  Léopold Biha (Tutsi)               (b. 1919 - d. 2003)  UPRONA
11 Jul 1966 - 28 Nov 1966  Michel Micombero (Tutsi)           (s.a.)               UPRONA
28 Nov 1966 - 15 Jul 1972  Post abolished
15 Jul 1972 -  5 Jun 1973  Albin Nyamoya (2nd time)(Hutu)     (s.a.)               UPRONA
  5 Jun 1973 - 12 Nov 1976  Post abolished
12 Nov 1976 - 13 Oct 1978  Édouard Nzambimana (Tutsi)         (b. 1945 - d. 2015)  UPRONA
13 Oct 1978 - 19 Oct 1988  Post abolished
19 Oct 1988 - 10 Jul 1993  Adrien Sibomana (Hutu)             (b. 1953)            UPRONA
10 Jul 1993 -  7 Feb 1994  Sylvie Kinigi (f)(Tutsi)           (s.a.)               UPRONA
 7 Feb 1994 - 22 Feb 1995  Anatole Kanyenkiko (Tutsi)         (b. 1952)            UPRONA 
22 Feb 1995 - 31 Jul 1996  Antoine Nduwayo (Tutsi)            (b. 1942)            UPRONA 
31 Jul 1996 - 12 Jun 1998  Pascal-Firmin Ndimira (Hutu)       (b. 1956)            UPRONA
12 Jun 1998 - 24 Jun 2020  Post abolished
24 Jun 2020 -              Alain Guillaume Bunyoni (Hutu)     (b. 1972)            CNDD-FDD
 
German Commanders of the station of Kajaga
1896                       Ullman
1896 - 1897                Muller                             (d. 1897)
German Commanders of the station of Usumbura
1897 - 1898                Konstantin Cramer
1898 - 1902                Werner von Grawert (1st time)      (b. 1867 - d. 1918)
Aug 1902 - Feb 1904        Robert von Beringe                 (b. 1865 - d. 1940)
Feb 1904 - 15 Nov 1907     Werner von Grawert (2nd time)      (s.a.)
German Residents
15 Nov 1907 - 1908         Werner von Grawert                 (s.a.)
Sep 1908 - Jan 1909        Heinrich Fonck (acting)            (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
Jan 1909 - Apr 1909        Eberhard Gudowius                  (b. 1878 - d. 1945)
Apr 1909 - Sep 1909        Erich von Langenn-Steinkeller      (b. 1872 - d. 1917)
                             (1st time)
Sep 1909 - Jan 1910        Otto Brentzel
Jan 1910 - Jan 1911        Wilhelm Göring
Jan 1911 - May 1911        Kurt von Stegmann und Stein        (b. 1874 - d. 1912)
May 1911 -  6 Jun 1916    
Erich von Langenn-Steinkeller      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1913                       Karl von Bock
                             (acting for 
Langenn-Steinkeller)
May 1913 - Aug 1914        Karl Schimmer                      (b. 1877 - d. 1915)
                             (acting for 
Langenn-Steinkeller)
Aug 1914 - 1916            Max Wentzel

                             (acting for 
Langenn-Steinkeller)
Belgian Residents
1916 - Dec 1918            Édouard van den Eede               (b. 1888 - d. 1947) 
                             (military resident)
Jan 1919 - 1928            Pierre Marie Joseph Ryckmans       (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
1928 - 12 May 1929         Oscar Defawe (acting)              (b. 1892 - d. 1952)
 1 Feb 1930 - 24 Dec 1930  Charles, baron de l'Épine          (b. 1887 - d. 1967)
                             (interim)
24 Dec 1930 - 17 Jul 1933  Léon Borgers                       (b. 1897 - d. 19..)
17 Jul 1933 - 1935         Oger Coubeau                       (b. 1885 - d. 1961)
1935 - 1937                R. Hombert
12 Jan 1938 - 1940         René Verstappen (acting)           (b. 1895 - d. 19..)
Mar 1941 - 1944            George Victor Sandrart             (b. 1899 - d. 1973)
 2 Feb 1944 - Jul 1953     Robert Schmidt                     (b. 1908 - d. ....)
Jul 1953 - 1956            Fernand Siroux                     (b. 1908 - d. ....)
1956 - 28 Oct 1959         Robert Scheyven                    (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
28 Oct 1959 - 28 Jul 1961  Ivan Reisdorff                     (b. 1913 - d. 1981)
28 Jul 1961 - Jan 1962     Roberto Régnier
High Representatives
Jan 1962 - 1962            Roberto Régnier
1962 -  1 Jul 1962         Édouard Henniquiau                 (b. 1911 - d. 1995)

 ¹(a)The names of the kings followed a fixed cycle: Ntare, Mwezi, Mutaga, Mwambutsa. Traditionally it was thought that there were four full cycles, but today it is believed there were only two;
(b) Full style 30 Jan 1962 - 8 Jul 1966: Mwami y'Uburundi = Mwami / Roi du Burundi (also styled in French: Mwami du Burundi)("King of Burundi"). Mwami du Burundi and Roi du Burundi were used in French versions of the legislation interchangeably;
(c) 1 Sep 1966 - 28 Nov 1966: Umwami y'Uburundi = Roi du Burundi
("King of Burundi").Umwami w'Abarundi (Kirundi) and Roi des Barundi (French) were also occasionally used in legislation.

 ²On 6 Jun 1903 the German authorities imposed on Mwezi Gisabo the independence of the two chiefs Macoonco and Cyilima. On 8 Oct 1905 the Germans recognized Mwezi Gisabo as "Sultan" of Burundi and its only supreme authority.

 ³President Nkurunziza died 8 Jun 2020. President of the National Assembly, Pascal Nyabenda (b. 1966)(Hutu) CNDD-FDD, was a constitutional successor in accordance with Art. 121 of the Constitution of 2018. However, Nyabenda never assumed the functions of President. On 12 Jun 2020, the Constitutional Court passed a resolution declaring that an interim presidency was not necessary and called on the authorities for inauguration of the president elect Évariste Ndayishimiye (s.a.) which followed on 18 Jun 2020. The Council of Ministers chaired by First Vice President Gaston Sindimwo (b. 1965)(Tutsi) UPRONA, and Second Vice President Joseph Butore (b. 1969)(Hutu) CNDD-FDD, administered the government until the swearing-in of President elect Évariste Ndayishimiye.

Note: Ethnic groups, which play a preeminent role in politics, are listed in parentheses following names i.e. (Hutu) or (Tutsi). All the kings (mwami) were ethnic Tutsi.

Territorial Disputes: Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region.

Party abbreviations: CNDD-FDD = Conseil National pour la Défense de la Démocratie-Forces pour la Défense de la Démocratie (National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy, multi-ethnic Hutu dominated, legalized 2005, est.1994); FRODEBU = Front Démocratique Burundi (Burundi Democratic Front, Hutu moderate, legalized 1992, est.1986); UPRONA = Parti de l'Union et du Progrès National (Party of National Union and Progress, authoritarian, multi-ethnic Tutsi dominated, only legal party 1966-76, 1980-91, dissolved Nov 1976-1980, est.1957); Mil = Military;
- Former partiesUPP = Union des Partis Populaires (Union of People's Parties)


Martyazo
                        

[Flag Martyazo 1972
                        (Burundi)]
1 May 1972 - 9 May 1972

 1 May 1972                Hutu rebels proclaim secessionist state Republic of Martyazo
                             inside the mountainous Vuzigo commune, between the Makamba
                             and Lake Nyanza.
 9 May 1972                Rebellion ended by Tusti dominated national government.

President
 1 May 1972 -  9 May 1972  Antoine Serukwavu? (Hutu)          (d. 19..)            Mil



Ruanda-Urundi
 
[German Empire
                          1870-1919 (Germany)]
1896 - May/Sep 1916
[Flag of Belgium]
May/Sep 1916 - 1 Jun 1962
Map of Ruanda-Urundi
Hear National Anthem
"La Brabançonne"
(The Song of Brabant)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1830/1921
(Lyrics 1860)

Constitution
Capital: Bujumbura
(Boma, Belgian Congo
 1916-23; Léopoldville 1923-24)

Currency: Ruanda and
Urundi
Franc (BRIF)
 2 Sep 1960-1964;
Belgian Congo Franc
(CBEF) 1919-1960

National Holiday:
21 Jul (1831)

Fête Nationale
(National Day)

Population: 4,700,000
(1958 est.)
3,754,000 (1939)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: 60.2 million
 (BEF) (1939)

Imports: 84.3 million
 (BEF) (1939)

Ethnic Groups: Hutu, Tutsi, Pygmy, European (1,227)
(1939)

Total Armed Forces: N/A
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Roman Catholic, others
International Organizations: ITU (associate), UNESCO (associate), UPU, WHO (associate), WMO

1892                       German expedition reaches Ruanda.
1896                       Military station was established at Kajaga in Urundi
                             (in 1897, relocated to Usumbura); part of the military
                             district of Ujiji (or Tanganyika-Kivu).
1899                       Military district of Usumbura (Ruanda-Urundi) formed within
                             German East Africa (see Tanzania).
1906                       Becomes a military residency.
15 Nov 1907                Divided into two civil residencies: Ruanda and Urundi.
19 May 1916/18 Sep 1916    Belgian conquest of parts of German East Africa; Nyaza (19 May
                             1916), Ruanda (16 May 1916), Usumbura (8 Jun 1916), Urundi
                             (17 Jun 1916), Usui (29 Jul
1916 - Mar 1921), Ujiji and Kigoma
                             (20 Jul 1916 [Ujiji to 22 Mar
1921]), and Tabora region (18 Sep
                             1916 - Feb 1917).
30 May 1919                Orts-Milner Convention with Britain; only Ruanda and Urundi
                             remain under Belgian administration.
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations Mandate of Ruanda-Urundi.
 1 Mar 1926 - 30 Jun 1960  Administrative union with Belgian Congo.
13 Dec 1946                United Nations Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi.
 1 Jul 1962                Independence of both territories.

German Commanders of the Military District of Udjidji (Ujiji)
May 1896 - 189.            Hans von Ramsay                    (b. 1862 - d. 1940)
1898 - Feb 1901            Heinrich Bethe
German Commanders of the Military District of Usumbura (Bujumbura)
1899 - 1902                Heinrich Bethe 
Aug 1902 - Feb 1904        Robert "Oskar" von Beringe         (b. 1865 - d. 1940)
Feb 1904 - Jun 1906        Werner von Grawert                 (b. 1867 - d. 1918)
Resident of Urundi and Ruanda
1906 - 15 Nov 1907         Werner von Grawert                 (s.a.)
Belgian Military Commanders
- Commanders of the Northern brigade -
(operating in territories south of Lake Victoria, including Northern Ruanda)
Apr 1916 - 1916            Philippe François Joseph Molitor   (b. 1869 - d. 1952)
1916 - 1917                Armand Christophe Huyghé           (b. 1871 - d. 1944) 
- Commander of the Southern Brigade -
(operating in territories east of the Kivu and Tanganyika Lakes,
including Southern Ruanda and Urundi) 
May 1916 - 1917            Frederik Voldemar Olsen            (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
Military Governor of the Occupied East African Territories
Apr 1916 - 22 Nov 1916     Charles Henry Marie Ernest         (b. 1867 - d. 1947)
                             Tombeur, baron Tombeur de Tabora 
Royal Commissioners for Occupied East Africa
22 Nov 1916 - May 1919     Justin Prudent François Marie      (b. 1862 - d. 1924)
                             Malfeyt
May 1919 - 20 Oct 1924     Alfred Frédéric Gérard Marzorati   (b. 1881 - d. 1955)
Nov 1921 - Jul 1922        Pierre Marie Joseph Ryckmans       (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
                             (acting for Marzorati)
Royal Commissioner for Ruanda-Urundi
20 Oct 1924 - 28 Aug 1926  Alfred Frédéric Gérard Marzorati   (s.a.)
15 Nov 1925 - 13 Dec 1926  Pierre Marie Joseph Ryckmans       (s.a.)
                             (acting [for Marzorati to 28 Aug 1926]) 
Governors of Ruanda-Urundi (also deputy governors-general of the Belgian Congo)
28 Aug 1926 -  5 Feb 1929  Alfred Frédéric Gérard Marzorati   (s.a.)
 5 Feb 1929 -  4 Jul 1930  Louis Joseph Postiaux (acting)     (b. 1882 - d. 1948)
 4 Jul 1930 - 18 Aug 1932  Charles Henri Joseph Voisin        (b. 1887 - d. 1942)
18 Aug 1932 -  5 Jul 1946  Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis        (b. 1888 - d. 1958)
                             Jungers
 5 Jul 1946 - Aug 1949     Maurice Simon (acting to 1947)     (b. 1892 - d. 1960)
Aug 1949 -  1 Jan 1952     Léon Antoine Marie Pétillon        (b. 1903 - d. 1996)
 1 Jan 1952 -  1 Mar 1955  Alfred Maria Josephus Ghislencus   (b. 1906 - d. 1993)
                             Claeys-Boúúaert 
 1 Mar 1955 - 1960         Jean-Paul Harroy                   (b. 1909 - d. 1995)
Resident General of Ruanda-Urundi
1960 - 11 Jan 1962         Jean-Paul Harroy                   (s.a.)

Commander of the Allied Occupation Force
27 Jun 1916 - 30 Apr 1917  Gustave Eugène Henri Stevens       (b. 1866 - d. 1928)
                             (Belgium)
Chief Political Affairs Officer
191. - 19..                Nigel Edward Frank Corbett (U.K.)  (b. 1876 - d. 1947)




© Ben Cahoon