World Statesmen.org HOME >


 




 
 
 


Tonga
 
[Old
                                    Tongatabu flag c.1850-1862 (Tonga)]
                    c.1850 - 1862
[Tonga
                                    flag 1862-1866]
                      1862 - 1866
[Tonga]
              Adopted 1866, Confirmed 4 Nov 1875
 
Map of Tonga Hear National Anthem
 "Ko e Fasi 'O e Tu 'i  'O e
'Otu Tonga"
(Song of the King of the
 Tonga Islands)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1874
Constitution
(4 Nov 1875)
Capital: Nuku'alofa
(Lifuka  1812-45, 1847-51;
Nuku'alofa 1799-1812, 1845-47)
Currency: Pa'anga (TOP);
1921-1966 Tonga Pound (TOS);
1936-1966 Australian Pound
 (AUP); 1900-1936 British
Pound (GBP)
National Holiday: 4 Jun (1970)
Independence Day
Population: 106,332 (2012)
GDP: $846 million (2013)
Exports: $9.1 million (2013)
Imports: $122.5 million (2013)
Ethnic groups: Tongan 96.6%, part-Tongan 1.7%, other 1.7%,
 unspecified 0.03% (2006)
Total Active Armed Forces: 418 (2012)
Defense Cooperation Agreements with
Australia and New Zealand
Merchant marine
: 7 ships (2010)
Religions: Protestant 64.9% (includes Free Wesleyan Church
37.3%, Free Church of Tonga 11.4%, Church of Tonga 7.2%,
 Tokaikolo Christian Church 2.6%, Assembly of God 2.3%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 2.2%, Constitutional Church of
Tonga 0.9%, Anglican 0.8% and Full Gospel Church 0.2%),
Mormon 16.8%, Roman Catholic 15.6%, other 1.1%, none 0.03%,
 unspecified 1.7% (2006)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, BTWC, C, CWC, FAO, G-77, IAEA (applicant), IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ITU, ITUC, KP, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, PC, PIF, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Tonga Index
Chronology

....                       Tonga settled.
c.950                      The first Tui'i Tonga takes office.
16th cent.                 Tui'i Tonga delegates political authority to a 
                             side branch of the royal family styled as
                             the Tu'i Ha'atakalaua.
c.1600                     Tu'i Ha'atakalaua further delegates political
                             authority to the new post of Tu'i Kanokupolu.
28 Apr 1616                Discovered by Dutch Captains Willem Schouten 
                             and Jacob Lemaire.
21 Jan 1643                Dutch Capt. Abel Tasman sights Tongatapu
                             (named Amsterdam), Euva (Middleburg) and 
                             Nomuka (Rotterdam).
 2 Oct 1773                Re-discovered and named Friendly Islands by
                             British Captain James Cook.
 5 May 1781                Vava'u discovered by Spanish Capt. Francisco 
                             Maurelle.
10 May 1799                Office of Tu'i Ha'atakalaua expires.
 9 Dec 1865                Last Supreme ruler (Tui'i Tonga) dies.
 4 Nov 1875                Kingdom of Tonga
14 Nov 1886                Declared to be neutral territory by the Congress
                             of Berlin.
18 May 1900                British protected state (also called Friendly
                             Islands).
18 May 1900 - 1952         Part of the British Western Pacific Territories.
 4 Jun 1970                Independence from Britain (Kingdom of Tonga).

Ha`apai-Vava`u
(1777-1833)
Minerva
(1972, 1982)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Note: From ancient times Tonga had a highly tabooed supreme ruler, the Tu'i Tonga. The tradition claims that in the 16th century the Tu'i Tonga delegated political authority to a side branch of the royal family, with the style Tu'i Ha'atakalaua, and that round 1600 the Tu'i Ha'atakalaua further delegated political authority to the Tu'i Kanokupolu. The office of Tu'i Ha'atakalaua expired 10 May 1799. The Tu'i Kanokupolu office continued, with some interruptions, and indeed the future King King Siaosi Taufa'ahau Tupou I was the last 
Tu'i Kanokupolu (although his successors as kings and queen regarded themselves as continuing holders of this office). The last Tu'i Tonga served until 9 Dec 1865, at which point Siaosi Taufa'ahau Tupou ruled alone as Tu'i Kanokupolu. On 4 Nov 1875 Tonga was established as a kingdom (Pule 'Anga Fakatui'i'o Tonga ["Kingdom of Tonga"]).

Supreme rulers (styled Tu`i Tonga)
.... - ....                Fatafehi Tu'i Pulotu 'i Langi
                             Tu'oteau (Tu'ipulatu I)
.... - ....                Fatafehi Fakana'ana'a 
17.. - 1770                Fatafehi Tu'i Pulotu 'i Langi      (d. 1770)
                             Tu'oteau (Tu'ipulatu II)
1770 - 1784                Fatafehi Paulaho                   (b. c.1749 - d. 1784)
1784 - 1793                Fatafehi Ma'ulupekotofa            (d. 1806)
1793 - 1810                Fatafehi Fununuiava                (b. 1765 - d. 1810)
1810 - 1827                Interregnum
1827 -  9 Dec 1865         Fatafehi Laufilitonga              (b. 1797 - d. 1865)
                             (from 7 Nov 1851, Samuelio Fatafehi Laufilitonga)
Chiefs (styled Tu`i Ha`atakalaua)
.... - ....                Mapa
.... - ....                Fuatakifolaha
.... - 1777                Maealiuaki                         (d. af.1781)
1777 - 10 May 1799         Mulikiha'amea                      (d. 1799)
Chiefs (styled Tu`i Kanokupolu)
.... - 1736                Vuna Tu'i'oetau                    (d. af.1736)
1736 - 1765                Ma'afu'otu'itonga                  (d. af.1765)
1765 - 1771                Tupoulahi
1771 - 1777                Maealiuaki (1st time)              (s.a.)
1777                       Tupoulahisi'i
1777                       Mulikiha'amea (1st time)           (s.a.)
1771 - 1777                Maealiuaki (2nd time)              (s.a.)
1777 - 1782                Tu'i Halafatai                     (b. c.1747 - d. 1799)
                           - jointly with -
1777 - 1781                Tupoumahe'ofo (f) (1st time)       (b. 1745 - d. 1793)
1782 - 1789                Tupou Lahisi'                      (d. c.1789)
1789 - 1793                Maealiuaki (3rd time)              (s.a.)
1793                       Tupoumahe'ofo (f) (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1793 - 29 Apr 1797         Tupou Mumui                        (b. 1733 - d. 1797)
29 Apr 1797 - 21 Apr 1799  Talai Tupou (Finau Tuku'aho)       (b. 1753 - d. 1799)
                             (regent 1793 - 29 Apr 1797)
21 Apr 1799 - 22 Apr 1799  Ma'afu'olimuloa                    (b. 17.. - d. 1800)
22 Apr 1799 - 1812         Tupou Malohi                       (b. 17.. - d. 1812)
                             (in Fiji exile 1800-1805)
1812 - 1820                Tupouto'a                          (b. 17.. - d. 1820)
1820 - 1826                Interregnum
 7 Dec 1826 - 14 Nov 1845  'Alea Motu'a Tupouifaletuipapai    (d. 1845)
                             (from 18 Jan 1830, Josiah Tupou)
18 Nov 1845 -  4 Nov 1875  Siaosi Taufa'ahau Maeakafa         (b. 1797 - d. 1893)
                             (from 4 Dec 1845, Siaosi Taufa'ahau Tupou Maeakafa)
Kings
¹
 4 Nov 1875 - 18 Feb 1893  George Tupou I                     (s.a.)
                             (Siaosi Taufa'ahau Tupou I Maeakafa)
18 Feb 1893 -  5 Apr 1918  George Tupou II                    (b. 1874 - d. 1918)
                             (Siaosi Tupou II)
Queen¹
 5 Apr 1918 - 16 Dec 1965  Salote (Charlotte) Tupou III       (b. 1900 - d. 1965)
Kings¹
16 Dec 1965 - 11 Sep 2006  Taufa'ahau Tupou IV                (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
11 Sep 2006 - 18 Mar 2012  George Tupou V                     (b. 1948 - d. 2012)
18 Mar 2012 -              Tupou VI                           (b. 1959)         
 

Prime ministers (1876-1970, Premier)
1876 - 18 Dec 1879         Tevita Unga                        (b. c.1824 - d. 1879)Non-party
Apr 1881 - Jul 1890        Shirley Waldemar Baker             (b. 1836 - d. 1903)  Non-party
Jul 1890 - 1893            Siaosi (George) Tuku'aho           (b. 1854 - d. 1897)  Non-party
1893 - Jan 1905            Siosateki Tonga                    (b. 1853 - d. 1913)  Non-party
Jan 1905 - 30 Sep 1912     Sione Mateialona                   (b. 1852 - d. 1925)  Non-party
30 Sep 1912 - 30 Jun 1922  Tevita Tu'ivakano                  (b. 1869 - d. 1923)  Non-party
30 Jun 1922 - Jul 1940     Uiliame Tupoulahi Tungi            (b. 1887 - d. 1941)  Non-party
Jul 1940 - 12 Dec 1949     Solomone Ula Ata                   (b. 1883 - d. 1950)  Non-party
12 Dec 1949 - 16 Dec 1965  Crown Prince Taufa'ahau Tungi      (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (= Taufa'ahau Tupou IV)
16 Dec 1965 - 21 Aug 1991  Prince Fatafehi Tu'ipelehake       (b. 1922 - d. 1999)  Non-party
21 Aug 1991 -  3 Jan 2000  Sia'osi Tu'ihala Alipate Tupou,    (b. 1921 - d. 2009)  Non-party
                             Baron Vaea of Houma 
 3 Jan 2000 - 11 Feb 2006  Prince 'Ulukalala Lavaka Ata       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (= Tupou VI)
11 Feb 2006 - 22 Dec 2010  Feleti "Fred" Vaka'uta Sevele      (b. 1944)            HRDM
                             (acting to 30 Mar 2006)
22 Dec 2010 -              Lord Tu'ivakano                    (b. 1952)            Non-party

British Consuls
1901 - 1909                Hamilton Hunter                    (b. 1846 - d. 1923)
1909 - 1913                William Telfer Campbell            (b. 1863 - d. 1929)
1913 - 1917                Henry Eugene Walter Grant          (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
1917 - 1926                Islay McOwan                       (b. 1871 - d. 1948)
1926 - 1937                James Scott Neill                  (b. 1889 - d. 1958)
1937 - 1943                Arthur Leopold Armstrong           (b. 1888 - d. 1973)
1943 - 1949                Charles Walter Trevor Johnson      (b. 1893 - d. ....)
1949 - 1954                James Edward Windrum               (b. 1895 - d. 1992)
1954 - 1957                Charles Robert Harley Nott         (b. 1904 - d. 1997)
1957 - 1959                Archibald Cameron Reid (1st time)  (b. 1915 - d. 1994)
1959 - 1965                Edward James Coode                 (b. 1918 - d. 1979)
1965 - 1970                Archibald Cameron Reid (2nd time)  (s.a.)

 ¹Style of the ruler: ʻi he Kelesi ʻa e ʻOtua ko e Tuʻi ʻo e Puleʻanga ʻo Tonga ("By the Grace of God, King of the Kingdom of Tonga").

Party abbreviations: HRDM = Human Rights and Democracy Movement (pro-democratic reform, est.1992)



Ha'apai-Vava'u

Late 18th cent.            Ha'apai-Vava'u archipelago develops a high degree of autonomy,
                             but subject to the Tu'i Tonga, and notionally Tu'i Kanokupolu,
                             although the chiefs were often the most powerful persons in 
                             all of Tonga.
21 Jan 1643                Ha'apai visited by Dutch Capt. Abel Tasman.
27 Jun 1774               
Ha'apai visited by British Capt. James Cook.
 5 Mar 1781                Vava'u
visited by Spanish Capt. Francisco Mourelle de la Rúa.
20 May 1793                Vava'u claimed for Spain by Alessandro Malaspina (no effect).
Mar 1833                   Incorporated into Tonga.

Chiefs (styled Tu'i Vav'au; nominally governors)
c.1777 - 12 Jun 1797       Finau 'Ulukalala I 'i Ma'ufanga    (b. 1748 - d. 1799)
1797 - May 1799            Takitakimalohi                     (d. af.1809)
May 1799 - 1809            Finau 'Ulukalala II 'i Feletoa     (b. c.1750 - d. 1809)
1809 - 1811                Finau 'Ulukalala III Moengangongo  (b. c.1786 - d. 1811)
1811 - Mar 1833            Finau 'Ulukalala IV Tuabayi        (d. 1833)



Minerva
Minerva flag
         17 Jan 1972 - 21 Jun 1972
 9 Sep 1829                Australian whaling ship Minerva wrecks on the south reef.
1854                       British Capt. H. Denham of H.M.S. Herald charted the two reefs,
                             naming them the Minerva Reefs.
1942 - 1945                U.S. military forces occupied the atolls.
24 Nov 1966                Formally annexed to Tonga by Capt. Tevita Fifita.
1971                       Unclaimed underwater reefs colonized by the U.S. based Phoenix 
                             Foundation (a group of libertarians), construction commenced. 
19 Jan 1972                "Republic of Minerva" proclaimed (not recognized).
24 Feb 1972                Tonga restates its claim at South Pacific Forum.
15 Jun 1972                Minerva Reefs formally defined as part of Tonga by royal
                             proclamation, recognized by Fiji.
21 Jun 1972                Occupied by Tonga (as Teleki Tonga).
1983 (3 weeks)             Group led again by Morris C. "Bud" Davis tries to re-occupy the
                             reefs, but are forced off by Tongan troops.
Nov 2005                   Fiji lodges a complaint with International Seabed Authority
                             concerning territorial claim over Minerva and statement not
                             recognizing maritime water claims by Tonga.

Presidents
19 Jan 1972 - 1972         Michael J. Oliver                   (b. 1930)
Feb 1972 - 21 Jun 1972     Morris "Bud" C. Davis
                             (1st time)(provisional)
1982  (3 weeks)            Morris "Bud" C. Davis
                             (2nd time)




© Ben Cahoon