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Global Terrorist Organizations
 

Contents: 15 May Organization - Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) - Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) - Action Direct (AD) - Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades - Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB) - Ansar Al-Islam - Armed Islamic Group (GIA) - Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) - Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR) - Aum Shinrikyo (Aum ) - Babbar Khalsa International - Chukaku-Ha - Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) - Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine-Hawatmeh Faction (DFLP) - Egyptian Islamic Jihad - Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP) - Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) - Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) - First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO) - Force 17 -Front du Liberation du Quebec (FLQ) - Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group, IG) - Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement) - Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA) - Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM) - Hezbollah (Party of God) - Irgun - Irish Republican Army (IRA) - Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) - Jaish Ansar al-Sunna - Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) (Army of Mohammed) - Jamaat ul-Fuqra - Japanese Red Army (JRA)  - Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) - Kach and Kahane Chai - Khalistan Liberation Force (KLF) - Khmer Rouge - Kosovo Liberation Army  (KLA) - Kurdish Hezbollah - Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT) - Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) - Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) - Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) - Manuel Rodriguez - Patriotic Front (FPMR) - Morzanist Patriotic Front (FPM) - Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) - Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK, MKO) - National Liberation Front of Corsica (FLNC) - National Liberation Army (ELN) - New People's Army (NPA) - The Order - Organisation de l'Armée Secrète (OAS) - Palestinian Islamic Jihad-Shaqaqi Faction (PIJ) - Palestine Liberation Front-Abu Abbas Faction (PLF) - Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) - Palestinian National Liberation Movement (Fatah) - Palestinian Popular Struggle Front (PPSF) - Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) - Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC) - Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-Special Command (PFLP-SC) - Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-Special Operations Group (PFLP-SG) - al-Qaeda - Qibla and People Against Gangsterism and Drugs (PAGAD) - Real IRA (RIRA) - Red Army Faction - Red Brigades Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) - Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17 November) - Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C, Dev Sol) - Revolutionary People's Struggle (ELA) - Revolutionary United Front (RUF) - Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) - Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) - Stern Gang - Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) - Terra Lliure - Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) - Tupamaros (MLN) - al-Ummah - United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) - The Weathermen (UWO) - Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN)

Note on Terror Groups: There exist many different definitions of terrorism, but terrorism most commonly includes these elements: Use of premeditated, politically motivated violence or the threat of violence; Targeting noncombatants; Being a non-state actor; Absence of a state of war (specifically conventional warfare), thus excluding war crimes; Taking actions designed to coerce, frighten, or "send a message" to the public or a government (thus excluding organized crime performed for personal gain). The organizations listed on this page have verifiably used or attempted to use terrorist tactics, by the above criteria. Self-identification as a "terrorist" group is not required. This page does not condone, support or endorse violence or any of these groups which are listed below.  Groups are listed regardless of political or religious orientations. This page is intended purely for study and research purposes. 



15 May Organization 

1979                       15 May Organization established from remnants of Wadi Haddad's
                             Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-Special 
                             Operations Group. 
1980                       Bombs a Hotel in London.
1981                       Bombs El Al offices in Rome and Istanbul.
1984                       Disbands.

Leader
1979 - 1984                Muhammad al-Umari ("Abu Ibrahim") 
                            "the Bomb man"

Locations:                 Iraq, Middle East, Europe
Strength:                  50-60



Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) (Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades,
Black September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims) 

1974                       The Abu Nidal Organization (ANO)(Fatah Revolutionary
                             Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and 
                             Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims) split from PLO.
                             Targets included the United States, the United Kingdom, France,
                             Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and various Arab 
                             countries. Carried out terrorist attacks in 20 countries, 
                             killing or injuring almost 900 persons.
11 Oct 1976                Attacks on Syrian embassies in Islamabad, Pakistan and Rome, Italy 
 3 Jun 1982                Attempted assassination of Shlomo Argov, Israeli ambassador to
                             the United Kingdom. The attack will trigger the war Israel waged 
                             in Lebanon against the PLO presence. 
27 Nov 1984                Assassination of the British High Commissioner in Bombay, India. 
23 Nov 1985                Hijacking of an Egyptian plane to Malta, where sixty-six people
                             were killed during a rescue attempt by the Egyptian forces. 
27 Dec 1985                Major attacks on Rome and Vienna airports, killing sixteen and 
                             wounding scores. 
Sep 1986                   Attempted hijacking  of Pan-Am flight 73 at Karachi 
                             airport (22 persons killed). 
Jan 1991                   Suspected of assassinating PLO deputy chief Abu Iyad and PLO
                             security chief Abu Hul in Tunis.
Dec 1998                   Its leader, Sabri Al-Banna, relocated to Iraq. 
1999                       Authorities shut down the ANO's operations in Libya and Egypt.
14 Jan 2000                Austrian police arrest Halima Nimer (f).
16 Aug 2002                Abu Nidal dies or is assassinated in Baghdad.

Leader
1974 - 16 Aug 2002         Sabri al-Banna "Abu Nidal"             (b. 1937 - d. 2002)
                            "Amin al-Sirr",  "Sabri Khalil Abd Al Qadir"

Locations:                 Iraq, Lebanon, Libya
Strength:                  A few hundred plus limited overseas support structure.



Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)

1991                       Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) or simply Abu Sayyaf, also known as Al
                             Harakat Al Islamiyya, split from the Moro National Liberation
                             Front, to promote an independent Islamic state in western
                             Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago of the southern Philippines.
Apr 1995                   Raid on the town of Ipil.
27 Dec 1995                Militants kidnap 16 vacationers at Lake Sebu, Mindanao.
 3 Jan 1999                In Jolo, Philippines a grenade was lobbed into a crowd that had
                             gathered to watch firefighters put out a blaze in a neighborhood
                             supermarket. 10 people were killed, and at least 74 injured.
20 Mar 2000                53 hostages -including 22 school children and 5 teachers, and a 
                             priest were seized from two schools in Basilan, after Abu Sayyaf 
                             failed in an attempt to take an army outpost. The rebels
                             subsequently released 20 hostages in exchange for food.
22 Apr 2002                Three bombs went off in public places in the southern Philippines
                             city of General Santos killing 15 people and injuring more 
                             than 70.
23 Apr 2000                21 hostages were kidnapped from a Sipadan Island, Malaysia diving
                             resort by Abu Sayyaf. The hostages include three Germans, two
                             French, two South Africans, two Finns, one Lebanese and a 
                             Filipino working at the Sipadan Island Resort and
                             9 Malaysians working on the island were also seized.
20 Aug 2002                A group of Jehovah's witness Christian sect who worked as 
                             door-to-door salespeople were kidnapped by suspected Muslim
                             rebels on the Philippine island of Jolo. The group of three 
                             men and five women were working for a cosmetics company when
                             they were abducted in the town of Patikul.

Leaders
1991 - 18 Dec 1998         Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani       (b. 1959? - d. 1998)
Dec 1998 - Sep? 2006       Khadafi Janjalani                  (b. 1975 - d. 2006)
Jan 2007 - Jun 2007        Radullan Sahiron (Commander Putol) (b. c.1952)
                             (interim)
Jun 2007 -                 Yasser Igasan                      (b. c.1960)

Location:                  Philippines 
Strength:                  200 core fighters and more than 2,000 supporters.



Action Directe (AD)

1977                       Action Directe (AD) founded as anti-NATO, based in France.
 1 May 1979                First attack, AD machine guns the building of the CNPF (now 
                             Medef) French employers federation.
1984                       AD banned by France.
17 Nov 1986                AD kills Georges Besse, Chairman of Renault car company.
 8 Aug 1985                AD and Red Army Faction (RAF) claim joint responsibility for bomb 
                             blast at U.S. air base in Frankfurt, Germany that kills 2.
15 Jan 1986                Communiqué by AD and RAF states they will work together to attack
                             NATO targets.
21 Feb 1987                Remaining members arrested in Vitry-aux-Loges, France near Orléans;
                             organization becomes defunct.
 

Leaders
1977 - 21 Feb 1987         Jean-Marc Rouillan (founder)
                           + Nathalie Ménigon (f)
                           + Joëlle Aubron (f)                   (b. 1960? - d. 2006)
                           + Régis Schleicher (arrested 1984)
                           + Georges Cipriani

Location:                  France, West Germany, Belgium
Strength:                  5 main members



Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades (Brigades of Shahid Yasser Arafat)

[Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades
                  logo]

 2 Mar 2002               Attack on Beit Yisrael, Jerusalem- 11 killed.
 5 Jan 2003               Attack on Southern Tel Aviv central bus station- 22 killed.
18 Dec 2003               Fatah decided to ask the leaders of the Al-Aqsa Martyr's Brigades
                            to join the Fatah Council, recognizing it officially as part
                            of the organization.
Dec 2003                  Assassinated the brother of Ghassan Shakaa, the mayor of Nablus.
29 Jan 2004               Attack on Rehavia, Jerusalem, bus line 19- 11 are killed.
14 Mar 2004               Port of Ashdod attack (together with Hamas)- 10 are killed. 
Jul 2004                  Riots in the Gaza Strip, where Palestinian officers are kidnapped 
                            and PA security headquarters buildings and policemen were 
                            attack by armed gunmen.
11 Nov 2004               Announced that they will sign their attacks in the name "Brigades
                            of Shahid Yasser Arafat."
16 Oct 2005               Claimed responsibility for a shooting attack at the Gush Etzion
                            junction, killing three Israelis and wounding three others.
30 Jan 2006               European Union's Gaza offices were raided by 15 masked gunmen. 
                            They demanded apologies from Denmark & Norway regarding the 
                            "Jyllands-Posten" Muhammad cartoons.
 

High Commander
2002 -                     Marwan Barghouti                   (b. 1959)
                            (imprisoned by Israel 15 Apr 2002)

Location:                  Gaza Strip, West Bank, Israel.
Strength:                  .... members, unknown amount of external aid.



Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB)

1984                      Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB) formed in the Philippines, emerging
                            as the breakaway urban 'hit squad' of the Communist Party of the
                            Philippines New People's Army.
1989                      Believed to have been involved in the murder of U.S. Army Colonel
                            James Rowe.
Mar 1997                  ABB announced that it had formed an alliance with the Revolutionary
                            Proletarian Army (RPA) of Arturo Tabara.
 2 Dec 1997               Claimed credit for rifle grenade attack against Shell Oil Co. 
                            headquarters in Manila.

Leaders
1984 - 1997                Filemon "Ka Popoy" Lagman           (b. 1953 - d. 2001)
1997 -                     Nilo de la Cruz

Location:                  Manila, Philippines
Strength:                  500 members, unknown amount of external aid.



Ansar Al-Islam

 1 Sep 2001                Ansar Al-Islam ("Supporters of Islam") founded by merger
                             of two radical Kurdish Muslim sects (Jund al-Islam and Islamic
                             Movement splinter group).
Sep 2001                   Ambushed and kills 42 PUK fighters.
Feb 2002                   Assassinated Franso Haririr, Christian Kurdish politician.
Spring 2002                Attempted assassination of Barham Salih, PUK leader.
Jun 2002                   Bombed a Kurdish restaurant.
Jul 2002                   Killed 9 PUK fighters and destroys Sufi shrines.
Oct 2002                   Murdered U.S. Agency for International Development officer 
                             Laurence Foley in Amman, Jordan.
Dec 2002                   Attacked PUK, killing 103 fighters and wounding 117.
 1 Apr 2003                U.S. and Kurdish forces destroy bases and force Ansar
                             to flee Iraq.

Leaders
Sep 2001 - 200.           Abu Abdullah Shafae (Warya Holery)
                            (1s time)
200. - 2003               Mullah Krekar                       (b. 1956)
                            (Najmuddin Faraj Ahmad)
                            (from 2003, under arrest in Norway)
2003 -                    Abu Abdullah Shafae (Warya Holery)
                            (2nd time)

Locations:                 Formerly in northern Iraq pocket around Biyarah and Halabja.
Strength:                  500-700 (est. Jan 2003)



Armed Islamic Group (GIA)

[flag of Armed Islamic Group
                  (GIA)]

Dec 1991                   Algeria voids the election victory of the Islamic Salvation Front.
1992                       Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic
                             al-Jama'ah al-Islamiyah al-Musallah) begins attacks to overthrow 
                             the secular Algerian government and replace it with an 
                             Islamic state.
Sep 1993                   Announces terrorist campaign against foreigners living in Algeria.
26 Aug 1994                Declared a "Caliphate", or Islamic government for Algeria, with
                             Gousmi as Commander of the Faithful, Mohammed Said as head 
                             of government.
Dec 1994                   Hijacked Air France flight to Algiers. 
27 May 1996                Bodies of seven monks from the monastery of Tibhirine (L'Abbaye
                             Notre-Dame de l'Atlas
) in Algeria, belonging to the Roman
                             Catholic Trappist Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance
                             are found. The monks were kidnapped on 26 Mar 1996. GIA claims
                             responsibility
.
 1 Aug 1996                GIA suspected in killing of French Archbishop of Oran.
1998                       The GSPC splinter faction appears to have eclipsed the GIA.
11 Jun 1999                GIA announced a jihad on French territory in a threatening letter
                             addressed to the media.

Leaders
1992 - Sep 1992            Allel Mohamed "Moh Leveilley"           (d. 1992)
1992 - Nov 1992            "Tayyeb El-Afghani"                     (d. 1992)
Jan 1993 - 1993/94         Abdelhak Layada "Abu Adlane"
1993/94 - 26 Feb 1994      Mourad Si Ahmed "Djaffar al-Afghani"    (d. 1994)
1994 - Mar 1994            Abou Khalil Mahfoudh (acting)
Mar 1994 - 26 Aug 1994     Cherif Gousmi "Abou-Abdellah"           (d. 1994)
Emirs
26 Aug 1994 - Sep 1994     Cherif Gousmi "Abou-Abdellah"           (s.a.)
Sep 1994 - 16 Jul 1996     Djamel Zitouni "Abou Abderrahmane Amine"(b. 1964 - d. 1996)
1996 -  8 Feb 2002         Antar Zouabri "Abou Rahana"             (b. 1970 - d. 2002)
2002 - Jul 2004            Rachid Abou Tourab                      (d. 2004)
2004                       Boulenouar Oukil
2004 - Nov 2004            Nourredine Boudiafi
2004                       Guechniti Redouane                      (d. 2004)
2004 - Dec 2004            Younes Chaabane                         (d. 2004)

Location:                  Algeria
Strength:                  Unknown, probably several hundred to several thousand.



Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) (Orly Group, 3rd October
Organization)

[Armenian Secret Army for
                  the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA] flag

1975                        Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) (a.k.a.
                              the Orly Group, 3rd October Organization) formed as a Marxist-
                              Leninist grouped to compel the Turkish Government to
                              acknowledge publicly its alleged responsibility for the deaths 
                              of 1.5 million Armenians in 1915, pay reparations, and cede
                              territory for an Armenian homeland.
22 Oct 1975                 Turkish ambassador to Austria Danis Tunaligil is killed.
16 Feb 1976                 First acknowledged killing -Turkish diplomat, Oktay Cerit, in
                              Beirut.
 7 Aug 1982                 Bombing of Ankara airport 9 killed.
15 Jul 1983                 Bombing at Orly Airport kills 8.
19 Dec 1991                 Last attack targeted the bullet-proof limousine carrying the
                              Turkish Ambassador to Budapest, ambassador was not injured.

Leaders
1975 - 25 Apr 1988          Hagop Hagopian                          (b. 1951 - d. 1988)
1988 - 1992                 ....

Location:                   Lebanon, Western Europe, Armenia, United States, Syria, Turkey.
Strength:                   A few hundred members and sympathizers. 



Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR) (Interahamwe, Former Armed Forces [ex-FAR])

[Rwanda, 1962-2001]

1994                       Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (Armée pour la Libération du
                             Rwanda, ALiR)(a.k.a. Interahamwe, Former Armed Forces of Rwanda 
                             [ex-FAR]) began actions to topple Rwanda's Tutsi-dominated 
                             government, and to restore Hutu control, and, possibly
                             complete the genocide begun early in 1994. FAR was the 
                             army of the Rwandan Hutu regime that carried out the genocide
                             of 500,000 or more Tutsis and regime opponents in 1994.
                             Interahamwe was its civilian militia counterpart, both merged 
                             in forced Congo exile.
1999                       ALIR kidnapped and killed 8 foreign tourists in a game park on 
                             the Congo-Uganda border.
2001                       Consolidated forces with a Kinshasa-based Hutu group to form the
                             Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR).

Leaders
1994 - 2001               ....

Locations:                 Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo 
Strength:                  Several thousand.



Aum Shinrikyo (Supreme Truth, Aum)

[Aum Shinrikyo
                    flag]
                   Adopted 2000
1984                       Aum Shinrikyo (Supreme Truth or Aum) apocalyptic 
                             religious cult founded to take over Japan and then the world.
1987                       Received official status of a religion from the Japanese 
                             government.
20 Mar 1995                Sarin nerve gas attacks on several Tokyo subway trains that killed 
                             12 persons and injured up to 6,000.
May 1995                   Shoko Asahara arrested by Japanese police.
Jan 2000                   Renamed itself Aleph, claims to reject the violent and 
                             apocalyptic teachings of its founder. 

Supreme Leaders
1984 - 29 Dec 1999         Shoko Asahara (Chizuo Matsumoto)   (b. 1955)
29 Dec 1999 -              Fumihiro Joyu                      (b. 1962)

Location:                  Japan, previously had a presence in Australia, Russia, Ukraine, 
                             Germany, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, the former Yugoslavia, and the U.S.
Strength:                  Current membership is estimated at 1,600 (2002 est.)(the group 
                            claimed to have 9,000 members in Japan and up to 40,000 worldwide)



Babbar Khalsa International

[Babbar Khalsa International logo]

Spring 1978                Babbar Khalsa a militant Sikh separatist group formed.
23 Jun 1985                Bombing of Air India flight, more than 300 are killed.
1986                       Joins in declaration of "Khalistan" independence from India.
22 May 2005                Attack at movie theater in Delhi, 1 person killed 49 injured.

Leaders
1978 - 1992                Sukhdev Singh
1992 - 26 Mar 2006         Paramji Singh Bheora 
2006 -                     Wadhawa Singh

Locations:                 India, Pakistan
Strength:                  ....



Chukaku-ha (Nucleus or Middle Core Faction)

1957                       Founded to protest Japan's imperial system, Western imperialism,
                             and later events such as the Gulf War and the expansion of
                             Tokyo's Narita Airport. Largest domestic militant group; has 
                             small covert action wing called Kansai Revolutionary Army
1985/86                    Performed a number of sabotage attacks, including several attempts
                             to derail trains, as well as the launching of crude incendiary
                             rockets at United States Naval bases.

Leaders
1957 -       ;             ....

Location:                  Japan
Strength:                  3,500; has not engaged in any terrorist activities
                             for nearly two decades.



Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) (Continuity Army Council)

[Ireland Flag]

Sep 1994                   Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA)(a.k.a. Continuity Army 
                             Council) formed as a radical terrorist splinter group formed 
                             as the clandestine armed wing of the political organization
                             Republican Sinn Fein (RSF). Goal: reunification of Ireland and 
                             to force British troops from Northern Ireland.
13 Jul 1996                Car bomb containing up to 1,200lb of home-made explosives exploded 
                             outside Kilyhelvin Hotel, Enniskillen, County Fermanagh.
29 Sep 1996                Car bomb containing 250lb of home-made explosives was abandoned 
                             in Belfast. 
31 Jul 1997                A bomb, estimated at between 500 and 1,000lbs, was left at the
                             grounds of Carrybridge Hotel, near Lisballaw, County Fermanagh. 
31 Oct 1997                Claimed responsibility for the attempted bombing of government 
                             offices Derry. 
24 Jan 1998                Car bomb exploded outside an entertainment club, the 'River Club'
                             on Factory Road in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh.
20 Feb 1998                Exploded a large car bomb, estimated at 500lbs, outside the Royal
                             Ulster Constabulary  station in the center of Moria, County Down.
 6 Feb 2000                Bomb explosion at a hotel in Irvinestown; there were no injuries. 
 1 Jun 2000                Planted a bomb under Hammersmith Bridge, London. 
19 Jul 2000                Planted a bomb at Acton Underground Station, London.
 9 Mar 2009                CIRA claimed responsibility for the fatal shooting of a PSNI
                             officer in Craigavon, County Armagh, the first police fatality
                             in Northern Ireland since 1998. 

Leaders
Sep 1994 -       ;         ....

Locations:                 Northern Ireland, Irish Republic.
Strength:                  Fewer than 50 hard-core activists.



Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP)-Hawatmeh Faction 

[Democratic Front for the
                  Liberation of Palestine (DFLP)-Hawatmeh Faction ]

1969                       Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PDFLP),
                             a Marxist-Leninist organization, founded when it split from 
                             the PFLP. Opposed the Israel-PLO peace agreement. Goal is to
                             achieve Palestinian national goals through revolution of the 
                             masses.
1974                       Renamed Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP).
since mid-1990's           Has made limited moves toward merging with the Popular Front for 
                             the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).
 4 Mar 1996                Assailants poured gasoline at the entrance to a restaurant in
                             Sitrah, Bahrain and threw Molotov cocktails inside, killing 
                             7 Bangladeshi employees and destroying the restaurant.
25 Aug 2001                At Marganit Outpost, Gaza Strip 2 Palestinian gunmen killed three
                             soldiers and wounded seven Friday night as they stormed a Gaza
                             Strip outpost in an attack unprecedented in the 11-month-long
                             intifada. Soldiers at the Marganit outpost shot and killed the 
                             two gunmen. The radical DFLP claimed responsibility for the
                             raid, in its first such claim in the intifada.

Secretary-general
1969 -                     Nayef Hawatmeh "Abu an-Nuf"        (b. 1935/37)

Locations:                 Syria, Lebanon, Gaza Strip, and West Bank
Strength:                  500



Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) (al-Jihad, Islamic Jihad, Jihad Group)

Late 1970's                al-Jihad (a.k.a. Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Jihad Group, Islamic
                             Jihad) formed to overthrow Egyptian government and replacement
                             with an Islamic state; attacks U.S. and Israeli interests in 
                             Egypt and abroad.
 6 Oct 1981                Responsible for assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat.
17 Mar 1992                Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina is bombed
                             29 killed, 250 injured by Islamic Jihad.
Jun 1992                   Activists in Egypt murdered author Faraj Fodah.
18 Aug 1993                Claims responsibility for attempted assassination of Egyptian
                             Interior Minister Hassan al-Alfi.
25 Nov 1993                Claims responsibility for attempted assassination of Egyptian
                             Prime Minister Atef Sedky.
1995                       Responsible for the Egyptian Embassy bombing in Islamabad, Pakistan
1998                       Zawahri formally merged Egyptian Islamic Jihad into al-Qaed. 

Spiritual Leader
1970's -                   Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman            (b. 1938) 

Leaders "Emirs"
1970's - 19..              Abboud al-Zumar al-Sharif 
                             (jailed 19.. - 14 Mar 2011)
19..  - 1998               Ayman al-Zawahri                   (b. 1951) 
- Talaa'al Fateh ("Vanguards of Conquest") faction -
.... - ....                Ahmed Husayn Agiza

Locations:                 Egypt, network outside Egypt, in Yemen, Afghanistan, Pakistan, 
                             Sudan, Lebanon, and United Kingdom.
Strength:                  Unknown, suspected to be several hundred.



Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP) (People's Revolutionary Army)

Ejército Revolucionario
                  del Pueblo (ERP) (People's Revolutionary Army)

1974                       Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP)(People's Revolutionary
                             Army) founded as the military branch of the Partido
                             Revolucionario de los Trabajadores (Workers' Revolutionary Party)
                             in Argentina.
1974                       Kidnapping of Esso executive Víctor Samuelsson and obtaining
                             a ransom of $12 million.
Mar 1976                   Argentine armed forces moved ahead with the Dirty War, 
                             dispensing with the civilian government.
late 1977                  Eradicated as a military force by Argentine armed forces.

Commanders
1974 - 19 Jul 1976         Mario Roberto Santucho            (b. 1936 - d. 1976)
1976 - 1977                Enrique Gorriarán Merlo           (b. 1941 - d. 2006)

Location:                  Argentina
Strength:                  100 fighters, with a 400 person support network,
                             some 2,500 sympathizers.



Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) (Basque Fatherland and Liberty) 

[Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA)
                  (Basque Fatherland and Liberty)

Note: there seems not to be one leader, but one or even more Executive committee's. The leaders listed seem to have been those who had most power.

31 Aug 1959                Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)(Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna)
                             established an independent homeland based on Marxist principles 
                             in the northern Spanish provinces of Vizcaya, Guipuzcoa, Alava, 
                             and Navarra and the southwestern French departments of Labourd, 
                             Basse-Navarra, and Soule.
1966                       ETA decides to start military struggle.
 7 Jun 1968                ETA carries out first planned killing: victim is Meliton Manzanas,
                             chief of secret police in Basque city of San Sebastian.
20 Dec 1973                Assassinates Premier Luis Carrero Blanco (likely Franco successor).
Oct 1974                   ETA divided into: ETA - 5th Assembly or Military ETA (ETA-m), and
                             ETA - 6th Assembly or Political-Military ETA (ETA-pm).
23 Feb 1981 -  Jan 1982    ETA-pm makes a truce which lasts until Jan 1982 when they kidnap
                             the father of singer Julio Iglesias.
20 Jan 1982                Many members of ETA-pm are arrested.
Sep 1982                   Many members of ETA-pm surrender.
 5 Feb 1984                ETA-pm is disbanded. What remains of its members joins the ETA-m.
1992                       ETA's three top leaders — military leader Francisco Mujika 
                             Garmendia "Pakito", political leader José Luis Alvarez
                             Santacristina "Txelis" and logistical leader José María Arregi
                             Erostarbe "Fiti", often referred to collectively as the "cupola"
                             of ETA or as the Artapalo collective [12] — were arrested in the
                             French Basque town of Bidart.
Sep 1998 -  3 Dec 1999     Observed a cease fire.
since 1960's               The group has killed more than 800 persons.
24 Mar 2006 - 30 Dec 2006  ETA declares a permanent cease-fire.
30 Dec 2006                Bomb in parking lot of Barajas International Airport in
                             Madrid kills 3.

Leaders
31 Aug 1959 - 19..         Executive Committee Heads
                           - Julen Madariaga
                           - José Maria Benito del Valle
- ETA-pm - 
19.. - 22 Feb 1983         José Astorquiza "Pottoka" 
- ETA-m -
19.. - 1987                Domingo Iturbe Abasolo "Txomin"     (d. 1987)
19.. - c. 1996             Alberto Félix López de
                             Lacalle "Mobutu" (?)
c.1996 - 1998              Mikel Albizu "Antza" (1st time)
1998 - Sep 2000            Ignacio Gracia Arregui              (b. 1955)
                             "Iñaki de Rentería"
Sep 2000 - 22 Feb 2001     Francisco Javier Garcia Gaztelu 
                             "Txapote"                         (b. 1966)
Feb 2001 - Oct 2004        Mikel Albizu "Antza" (2nd time)
                             (imprisioned Oct 2004)
Oct 2004 -       ;         ....

Locations:                 Northern Spain and southwestern France 
Strength:                  Unknown; may have hundreds of members, plus supporters.



Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN)

[Farabundo Martí National
                  Liberation Front (FMLN)

10 Oct 1980                Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (Frente Farabundo Martí
                             para la Liberación Nacional, FMLN) formed with Cuban help as an
                             umbrella group for Communist and leftist insurgent groups in 
                             El Salvador.
 2 Jan 1991                Two U.S. crewmen, Lt. Col. David Pickett and Crew Chief PFC, 
                             Earnest Dawson were executed after their helicopter was downed
                             by the FMLN militants in San Miguel Department.
31 Dec 1991                Peace Agreement with El Salvadoran government; FMLN continues as a
                             legal political party.

Leader
10 Jan 1980 - 31 Dec 1991  Schafik Jorge Hándal              (b. 1930 - d. 2006)

Locations:                 El Salvador, Honduras
Strength:                  6,000-7,000


Fatah: see Palestine Liberation Movement

First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO)

[First of October
                  Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO)

1975                       First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO)(Grupo de
                             Resistencia Anti-Fascista Premero de Octubre). The wing of
                             the illegal Communist Party of Spain of the Franco era. Formed
                             to overthrow of the Spanish government and replace it with a 
                             Marxist-Leninist regime. GRAPO is vehemently anti-U.S., calls
                             for the removal of all U.S. military forces from Spanish 
                             territory.
Nov 2000                   Spanish policeman is killed in reprisal for the arrest in France 
                             of several GRAPO leaders.

Leaders
1975 -       ;             ....

Location:                  Spain 
Strength:                  Unknown but likely fewer than a dozen hard-core activists. 



Force 17

early 1970's               Formed by senior Fatah officers, shortly after the PLO's 
                             expulsion from Jordan. Originally intended as a personal
                             security force for Gasser Aright and other PLO leaders, Force
                             17 eventually became one of the PLO's elite units and 
                             functioned in various areas of operational activities under 
                             the direct guidance of Arafat.
Aug 1982                   As a result of the Israeli attack on its headquarters, Force 17 
                             along with the other PLO forces, left Lebanon for Tunisia.
22 Sep 1985                Killed two Israelis in the Marina of Larnaka in Cyprus.
22 Jul 1987                Palestinian caricaturist Nagy El-Ali assassinated in Kuwait.
1990                       Attempted sea born attack in Israeli beaches foiled.
1994                       Officially dissolved when Arafat returned to Gaza and merged 
                             it into al-Amn al-Ri'asah (Presidential security) unit commanded 
                             by Faisal Abu Sharah.

Commanders
1970's - 22 Jan 1979       Ali Hassan Salame "Abu Hassan"    (b. 1943 - d. 1979)
22 Jan 1979 -              Mahmoud al Natour "Abu Tayeb"

Locations:                 Israel, West Bank, Gaza Strip, Jordan
Strength:                  Estimated at 3,000 members.



Front de Libération du Québec (FLQ) (Quebec Liberation Front)

[Front de Libération du Québec
                  (FLQ)

Feb 1963                   FLQ is founded. Their ultimate goal is to establish an 
                             independent Quebec nation, free from any ties to the 
                             rest of Canada, through violent activities.
 5 Oct 1970                Kidnaps James Cross, British commercial envoy in Quebec.
18 Oct 1970                Assassinates Pierre LaPorte, Labor Minister of Quebec province.
af.Oct 1970                The FLQ members who are not arrested break off into
                             smaller splinter groups, each with varying agendas. 

Leaders
Feb 1963 - 19 Jun 1963     Georges Schoeters (imprisoned)      (b. 1930)
1963 - 1964                Robert Hudon + Jean Gagnon
1965 - 1971                Charles Gagnon                      (b. 1939 - d. 2005)

Locations:                 Quebec, Canada
Strength:                  Unknown, ideology supported by some French speakers.



al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group, IG)

late 1970's                Formed with primary goal is to overthrow the Egyptian
                             government and replace it with an Islamic state, but certain
                             group leaders also may be interested in attacking U.S. and 
                             Israeli interests.
1991                       Murders Egypt's speaker of parliament. 
1992                       Attacks on Egyptian tourist sites begun.
 8 Jun 1992                Assassinates of Farag Foda. 
20 Apr 1993                Terrorists attempted to assassinate Egyptian Information Minister
                             Safw in Cairo, firing shots at his motorcade. The Minister was
                             slightly injured and his bodyguard was seriously wounded. 
27 Sep 1994                Three persons were killed and two were wounded when an assailant
                             fired on a downtown tourist area in Hurghada. Two Egyptians
                             and one German were killed in the attack. 
26 Jun 1995                Attempt in June 1995 to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni 
                             Mubarak in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
20 Oct 1995                Car bomb detonated outside the local police headquarters building
                             in Rijeka, killing the driver and injuring 29 bystander warning
                             that the attacks would continue unless authorities released an 
                             imprisoned Gama'at militant, Tala'at Fuad Kassem, who had been
                             arrested in Sep 1995.
19 Nov 1995                Car bomb attack on Egyptian embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan; 16 die.
28 Apr 1996                Europa Hotel shooting, Cairo. 18 Greek tourists killed.
18 Sep 1997                Attack on the Cairo National Antiquities Museum.
17 Nov 1997                Responsible for attack at Luxor that killed 58 foreign tourists
                             the "Hatshesut Temple massacre."
2003                       Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya renounced bloodshed.
 5 Aug 2006                Deputy leader of al-Qaeda Ayman al-Zawahiri announced a new
                            alliance with Al Gama'a al-Islamiyya, in a video released on
                            the internet. This was disputed by former members.

Spiritual Leader
1970's -                   Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman            (b. 1938) 

Leaders
1970's - 1991              Ala Mohieddin                      (d. 1991)
1991 - 2003               ....
2006 - 31 Oct 2008         Mohammad Hasan Khalil al-Hakim     (b. c.1961 - 2008)
                             "Abu Jihad al-Masri
"

Locations:                 Egypt, network outside Egypt, in Sudan, the United Kingdom,
                             Afghanistan, Austria, and Yemen.
Strength:                  Unknown. At its peak, IG probably commanded several thousand
                             hard-core members and another several thousand sympathizers.



Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement)

[Islamic Resistance
                  Movement "Hamas" (Palestine)]

1987                       Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya (Hamas)("Islamic Resistance
                             Movement"). Formed as an outgrowth of the Palestinian branch
                             of the Muslim Brotherhood. Aimed at establishing an Islamic
                             Palestinian state in place of Israel.
1989                       Israel outlaws Hamas and imprisons Sheikh Ahmed Yassin.
16 Apr 1993                Hamas' first use of suicide bombing.
25 Feb 1996                A suicide bomber blew up a bus in Jerusalem, killing 26 people 
                             and injuring some 80 others.
Aug 1999                   Jordanian authorities closed the group's Political Bureau offices
                             in Amman, arrested its leaders, and prohibited the group from
                             operating on Jordanian territory.
 1 Jun 2001                A Palestinian suicide bomber detonated an explosives belt amid a
                             crowd of youngsters outside a beach front nightclub, 
                             Dolphinarium, on a Friday night, killing at least 20 and injuring
                             more than 120. The blast occurred shortly after 11:00 pm 
                             on Tel-Aviv's Promenade.
 9 Aug 2001                A suicide bombing at a pizza restaurant in the center of Jerusalem
                             killed 15 people -mostly young families and tourists- and wounded
                             more than 90. Six children were among the dead. At roughly 14:00,
                             a blast devastated a crowded Sbarro Pizzeria at the corner of
                             King George and Jaffa streets.
27 Mar 2002                29 Israelis were killed and around 150 were wounded, when a suicide
                             bomber detonated an explosive device in the dining room of the
                             Park Hotel in Netanya.
 7 May 2002                A suicide bomber detonated a powerful bomb in a crowded billiards
                             hall in Israel, killing at least 16 and wounding more than 50.
                             The attack took place at the "Sheffield Club" pool hall, on the
                             third floor of a building in Rishon LeZion, South of Tel-Aviv.
18 Jun 2002                A Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up on a bus packed with
                             schoolchildren and office workers near the busy Patt Intersection
                             in southern Jerusalem, killing 20 people and wounding 52.
31 Jul 2002                At least 9 people were killed and seventy wounded in a bombing
                             at Hebrew University's Mount Scopus campus.
 4 Aug 2002                At least 10 people were killed, and more than 40 wounded in a
                             suicide bombing on a commuter bus in Meron Junction in northern
                             Israel.
15 Nov 2002                12 Israelis; four IDF soldiers, five Border Policemen and three
                             civilians, members of the emergency response squad of Kiryat 
                             Arba, were killed and 15 were injured in a Palestinian gunmen 
                             ambush in Hebron.
21 Nov 2002                A suicide bomber struck a municipal bus in Jerusalem, killing at
                             least ten people and injuring nearly 50. The bombing targeted
                             the number 20 Jerusalem bus as it passed through a quiet
                             residential neighborhood at the height of morning rush hour.
21 Mar 2004                Israel assassinates Sheik Ahmed Yasin in Gaza City, in Gaza Strip.
17 Apr 2004                Israel assassinates Rantissi in car explosion.
25 Jan 2006                In Palestinian parliamentary elections, Hamas wins 74 of 132 
                             seats and Fatah 45. Turnout is 78.2%. 
29 Mar 2006                Ismail Haniya (b. 1962) of Hamas is sworn in as Prime minister 
                             of the Palestinian government.

Spiritual Leader
1987 - 21 Mar 2004         Sheikh Ahmed Yassin               (b. 1936 - d. 2004)
                            (imprisoned 1989 - Oct 1997)

Leaders
1987 - 17 Apr 2004         Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi            (b. 1947 - d. 2004) 
18 Apr 2004 -              Mahmoud al-Zahar (?)              (b. 1945) 

Political leader/leader of Syrian branch
2004 -                     Khaled Meshaal                    (b. 1956)

Leader in Gaza Strip
22 Mar 2004 - 17 Apr 2004  Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi            (b. 1947 - d. 2004)

Locations:                 Israel, Gaza Strip, and West Bank
Strength:                  Unknown number of hard-core members; tens of thousands of
                             supporters and sympathizers.



Harakat ul- Ansar (HUA)

[flag of Harakat ul- Ansar
                  (HUA)]

Oct 1993                   Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA) founded to oppose Indian troops in Kashmir.
1994                       U.S. nationals kidnapped in New Delhi in effort to secure the 
                             release of imprisoned HUA leader Maulana Masood Azhar.

Leader
Oct 1993 - 1994            Maulana Masood Azhar

Locations:                 Pakistan, Kashmir
Strength:                  Several thousand armed supporters



Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM)

[Harakat ul-Mujahidin
                  flag]

1993                       Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM)(formerly known as the Harakat al-Ansar)
                             militant Islamic group formed to unite Kashmir with Pakistan.
Jul 1995                   Linked to the kidnapping of five Western tourists in Kashmir
                             who were later killed in Dec 1995.
Feb 1998                   Issues fatwa calling for attacks on U.S. and Western interests.
late 1999                  About 45% of HUM defects to join Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM).
24 Dec 1999                An India Airlines Airbus was hijacked enroute from Katmandu, 
                             Nepal to India. After making stops in India, Pakistan and the
                             United Arab Emirates, the plane was forced to land at Kandahar
                             in Afghanistan. 27 hostages, mostly women and children were
                             released when the plane made a re-fueling stop in the United 
                             Arab Emirates. 1 passenger was stabbed to death by the hijackers.
                             After 8 days of negotiations, the Indian government agreed to
                             free three Kashmiri militants in exchange for the release of the
                             remaining 154 hostages. One of those released was Maulana Masoud
                             Azhar, a senior member of the HUM.
 

Emirs
1993 - Feb 2000            Fazlur Rehman Khalil
Feb 2000 -                 Farooq Kashmiri

Secretary-general
Feb 2000 -                 Fazlur Rehman Khalil

Locations:                 Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir
Strength:                  Several thousand armed supporters.



Hezbollah (Party of God) (Hizballah, Islamic Jihad,Revolutionary Justice Organization, 
Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, and Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine)

Hezbollah (Party of God)
                  [Lebanon]

1982                       Hezbollah ("Party of God")(Hizballah, a.k.a. Islamic Jihad,
                             Revolutionary Justice Organization, Organization of the
                             Oppressed on Earth, and Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of
                             Palestine). Radical Shia organization founded in 
                             Lebanon to increase its political power in Lebanon, and opposing
                             Israel and the Middle East peace negotiations.
1982 - 1992                Kidnapped around 30 Westerners between 1982 and 1992, including 
                             American journalist Terry Anderson, British journalist John
                             McCarthy, the Archbishop of Canterbury's special envoy 
                             Terry Waite and Irish citizen Brian Keenan. 
18 Apr 1983                Suicide bombing of the American Embassy in Beirut, killed
                             61 people and left more than 120 wounded.
23 Oct 1983                Suicide bombing of the U.S. Marines headquarters in Beirut, killed
                             39 and wounded 40 people. On the same day a suicide bombing of
                             the French army barracks in Beirut kills 74 and wounded about 15.
20 Sep 1984                Truck bombing of replacement U.S. Embassy in East Beirut.
1985                       Hijacking of TWA Flight 847 en route from Athens to Rome. 
16 Feb 1992                Abbas al-Musawi, Hezbollah's secretary-general killed by a
                             rocket attack launched by an Israel.
17 Mar 1992                Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires was car-bombed, 29 killed.
18 Jul 1994                A car bomb exploded at the Israeli-Argentine Mutual Association
                             (AMIA), killing 100 persons and wounding more than 200 others.
                             The explosion caused the seven-story building to collapse.
19 Jul 1994                A Panamanian flight was bombed in the Alas Chiricanas bombing,
                             leaving 21 people dead, including 12 Jews. 
26 Jul 1994                Car bomb exploded outside the Israeli embassy in London.
31 Mar 1998                6 Lebanese construction workers were killed in the explosion of
                             a roadside bomb. Two others were wounded. The men were all 
                             civilians engaged in construction work at an South Lebanese Army
                             (SLA) outpost near Marjayoun. The attack reportedly occurred
                             shortly after a visit by Israeli Defense Minister Yitzhak 
                             Mordechai to SLA headquarters in nearby Marjayoun. 
 7 Oct 2000                3 Israeli soldiers – Adi Avitan, Staff Sgt. Benyamin Avraham, and
                             Staff Sgt. Omar Sawaidwere – were abducted by Hezbollah while
                             patrolling the Israeli side of the Israeli-Lebanese border.
                             The soldiers were killed either during the attack or in its
                             immediate aftermath.

12 Mar 2002                6 Israelis were killed when two H
ezbollah terrorists opened fire 
                             from ambush on Israeli vehicles traveling between Shlomi and 
                             Kibbutz Metzuba near the northern border with Lebanon.
12 Jul 2006 -  8 Sep 2006  Hezbollah rockets northern Israel, in response Israel attacks
                             and invades Lebanon in pursuit of Hezbollah militants. In the
                             fighting 1,200 Lebanese and 158 Israelis were killed.

12 Feb 2008                Hezbollah leader I
mad Mughnieh was killed by a car bomb in
                             Damascus, Syria.
 7-21 May 2008             Lebanon's 17-month long political crisis spiraled out of control.
                             H
ezbollah-led opposition fighters seized control of several West
                             Beirut neighborhoods from Future Movement militiamen loyal to
                             the American-backed government, in street battles that left 11
                             dead and 30 wounded before the government backed down and
                             Hezbollah was granted veto power in Lebanon's parliament
.     

Spiritual Leader
1982 -  4 Jul 2010         Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Hussein   (b. 1935 - d. 2010)
                             Fadlallah 

Secretaries-general
1982 - 1991                Sheikh Subhi al-Tufayli
1991 - 16 Feb 1992         Sheikh Abbas al-Musawi             (b. c.1952 - d. 1992)
Feb 1992 -                 Hassan Nasrallah                   (b. 1960) 

Locations:                 Lebanon. Has established cells in Europe, Africa, South America, 
                             North America, and Asia.
Strength:                  Several thousand supporters and a few hundred terrorist operatives.



Irgun (Irgun Zvai Leumi, National Military Organization, Etzel)

[Irgun]

1931                    Irgun Zvai Leumi (National Military Organization) a militant 
                          Zionist group that operated in the British Mandate of Palestine 
                          founded.
20 Apr 1936             2 Arab workers in a banana plantation killed.
14 Nov 1937             6 Arabs killed in several shooting attacks in Jerusalem.
12 Apr 1938             2 Arabs and 2 British policemen killed by a bomb in train in Haifa. 
17 May 1938             An Arab policeman was killed in an attack on a bus in the 
                          Jerusalem-Hebron road.
26 Jun 1938             7 Arabs killed by a bomb in Jaffa.
 5 Jul 1938             7 Arabs killed in several shooting attacks in Tel-Aviv and
                          3 Arabs killed by a bomb detonated in a bus in Jerusalem.
 6 Jul 1938             18 Arabs and 5 Jews killed by two simultaneous bombs in the
                          Arab Melon market in Haifa. 
16 Jul 1938             10 Arabs killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Jerusalem.
26 Jul 1938             39 Arabs killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Haifa.
26 Aug 1938             24 Arabs killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Jaffa.
27 Feb 1939             33 Arabs killed in multiple attacks, incl. 24 by bomb in Arab market
                          in Suk Quarter of Haifa and 4 by bomb in Arab vegetable market
                          in Jerusalem.
29 May 1939             5 Arabs killed by a mine detonated at the Rex cinema in Jerusalem.
                          the same day, 5 Arabs were shot and killed during a raid on 
                          the village of Biyar 'Adas.
 2 Jun 1939             5 Arabs killed by a bomb at the Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem. 
16 Jun 1939             6 Arabs killed in several attacks in Jerusalem.
19 Jun 1939             20 Arabs killed by explosives mounted on a donkey at a 
                          marketplace in Haifa.
29 Jun 1939             13 Arabs killed in multiple shootings during one hour period. 
 3 Jul 1939             An Arab killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Haifa, 6 Arabs were
                          killed in several attacks in Tel-Aviv, and 3 Arabs were killed
                          in Rehovot.
27 Aug 1939             2 British officers killed by a mine in Jerusalem.
1940 - 1943             Irgun declared a truce against the British, and supported Allied 
                          efforts against Nazi forces and their allies in the area by 
                          enlisting its members in British forces and the Jewish Brigade.
Oct 1945 - Jul 1946     Irgun was in an alliance with the Haganah and Lehi called the 
                          Jewish Resistance Movement, organized to fight British 
                          restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine.
22 Jul 1946             King David Hotel bombing against the British government of 
                          Palestine. Bomb exploded at the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, 
                          which had been the base for the British Secretariat, the military
                          command and a branch of the Criminal Investigation Division 
                          (police). 91 people killed (most of them civilians: 28 British, 
                          41 Arab, 17 Jewish, and 5 others). Around 45 people were injured.
Jul 1946 - Jun 1948     Irgun fought as irregulars against the British mandate and Arab
                          forces, informally in coordination with Haganah forces. 
25 May 1948             Largest single operation was a successful assault on Jaffa.

Leaders
1931 - 1937             Avraham Tehomi                         (b. 1903 - d. 1990) 
1937 - 1947            ....
1947 - 1948             Menachem Wolfovitch Begin              (b. 1913 - d. 1992)

Location:               Palestine
Strength:               ....



Irish Republican Army (IRA) (Provisional Irish Republican Army [PIRA], the Provos)

[Ireland Flag]

 5 Oct 1968                Irish Republican Army (IRA)(a.k.a. Provisional Irish Republican 
                             Army [PIRA], the Provos) formed as the clandestine armed wing 
                             of Sinn Fein, a legal political movement. Begins attacks to
                             remove British forces from Northern Ireland and unify Ireland.
 3 Jan 1974                IRA suitcase bomb on bus kills 11 ad wounds 14 in Yorkshire.
17 Jul 1974                IRA bomb kills one and injures 36 at the armory of the Tower
                             of London.
27 Nov 1975                Ross McWhirter, editor of Guinnes Book of Records, shot dead
                             by IRA in London after he establishes a terrorist reward fund.
22 Mar 1979                Provisional IRA kills British Ambassador Richard Skyes in 
                             The Hague.
37 Aug 1979                Responsible for the assassination of Louis Mountbatten, Earl
                             Mountbatten of
Burma, last Viceroy of British India.
21 Jan 1981                Sir Norman Srange, former Stormont Speaker, and son are 
                             killed by IRA in South Armagh.
12 Oct 1984                IRA bomb planted in Grand Hotel, Brighton, where Prime minister
                             Margaret Thatcher and cabinet are staying for Tory conference
                             kills 5 and injures 32.
23 Mar 1987                IRA bomb in U.K. base at Rheindalen, West Germany injures 31.
 7 Feb 1991                IRA mortar attack on British cabinet at 10 Downing Street.
Sep 1994 - Feb 1996        Observed cease-fire.
Jul 1997 - 28 Jul 2005     Observed cease-fire. 
28 Jul 2005                Provisional IRA Army Council announced an end to its armed
                             campaign.

Chiefs of Staff of the (anti-Treaty) Irish Republican Army
26 Mar 1922 - 10 Apr 1923  Liam Lynch                         (b. 1893 - d. 1923)
20 Apr 1923 - 12 Nov 1925  Frank Aiken                        (b. 1898 - d. 1983)
12 Nov 1925 - Jul 1926     Andy Cooney                        (d. 1968)
1926 - Jun 1936            Moss (Maurice) Twomey              (b. 1897 - d. 1978)
                             (acting to 1927) 
Jun 1936 - 1936            Seán MacBride                      (b. 1904 - d. 1988)
1937                       Thomas "Tom" Barry                 (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
1937 - 1938                Michael "Mick" Fitzpatrick         (b. 1893 - d. ....)
1938 - 14 Aug 1940         Seán Russell                       (b. 1893 - d. 1940) 
1940? - 30 Jun 1941        Stephen Hayes
1941 - 27 Nov 1941         Pearse Kelly (Paul Kelso) 
af.Nov 1941 - Feb 1942     Seán Harrington 
Feb 1942 - 14 Aug 1942     Seán McCool 
1942                       Eoin McNamee 
1942 - 12 Oct 1942         Hugh McAteer                       (b. 1917 - d. 1972)
Oct 1942 - 16 Jun 1944     Charlie Kerins                     (b. 1918 - d. 1944)
1944 - 1945                Harry White
Mar? 1945 - 1947?          Patrick Fleming 
1947 - 1948?               Willie McGuinness 
Nov 1948 -  6 Jul 1957     Tony Magan 
Jul 1957 - Sep 1958        Seán Cronin (1st time) 
                             (acting to 11 Nov 1957)
1958 - Sep 1958            John Joe McGirl                    (b. 1922 - d. 1988)
24 Oct 1958 - May/Jun 1958 Ruairí Ó Brádaigh (1st time)       (b. 1932)
May/Jun 1959 - Jun 1960    Seán Cronin (2nd time)
1960 - 1962                Ruairí Ó Brádaigh (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1962 - 1969                Cathal Goulding                    (b. 1922 - d. 1998)
Chiefs of Staff of the Provisional Irish Republican Army 
Dec 1969 - 19 Nov 1972     Seán Mac Stiofáin "Mac the Knife"  (b. 1928 - d. 2001)
                            (John Stephenson) 
Nov 1972 - Mar 1973        Joe Cahill                         (b. 1920 - d. 2004)
Mar 1973 - Jun 1973        Seamus Twomey (1st time)           (b. 1919 - d. 1989)
Jun 1973 - Jun/Jul 1974    Éamonn O'Doherty                   (b. 1939 - d. 1999)
Jun/Jul 1974 - Dec 1977    Seamus Twomey (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1977 - 18 Feb 1978  Gerry Adams                        (b. 1948)
1978 - 1982                Martin McGuinness                  (b. 1950)
1982 - Sep 1983            Ivor Bell 
Sep 1983 - Oct 1997        Kevin McKenna
Oct 1997 -                 Thomas "Slab" Murphy               (b. 1944)

Chiefs of Staff of the Official Irish Republican Army
Dec 1969 - 1972            Cathal Goulding                    (s.a.)
c.1998                     Seán Garland                       (b. 1934)

Locations:                 Northern Ireland, Irish Republic, Great Britain, Europe.
Strength:                  Several hundred members, plus several thousand sympathizers.



Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)

1992                       Adolet ("Justice") Movement created to oppose the secular regime 
                             of Islom Karimov and to make Uzbekistan an Islamic state.
1998                       Renamed Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.
Feb 1999                   Detonates six bombs in Tashkent, Uzbekistan killing 16. 
Aug 1999                   Held 4 Japanese men hostage until a ransom of several million was
                             paid.

Leaders
1992 -                     Tohir Abdouhalilovitch Yuldeshev     (b. 1967)
                           + Juma Ahmadzhanovitch Khojayev      (b. 1969 - d. 2001)
                             "Juma Namangni" (to Nov 2001)

Locations:                 Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan
Strength:                  Thousands



Jaish Ansar al-Sunna (Army of the Protectors of the Sunna) 

[flag of Jaish Ansar
                  al-Sunna]

Sep 2003                   Jaish Ansar al-Sunna (Army of the Protectors of the Sunna)
                             formed with claim to seek to expel U.S.-led occupation forces
                             from Iraq and to subsequently establish an Islamic state.
14 Oct 2003                Car bomb outside the Turkish embassy in Baghdad which killed one. 
20 Nov 2003                Car bomb attack on the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan headquarters 
                             in Kirkuk which killed six.
29 Nov 2003                Ambush against two vehicles, killing 7 Spanish Intelligence
                             officers. The militants directly credit the Hamzah Sariyah
                             Squadron of the al-Mansurah brigade, and say they retrieved 3
                             automatic weapons and a video camera from the wreckage.
31 Jan 2004                Bombing of the al-Taqafah police center in Mosul, killing nine.
23 Feb 2004                Bombing the Rahimawa police station in Kirkuk, killing 13.
28 Mar 2004                Claimed to have killed 8 Intelligence officers from Britain and
                             Canada, though neither country recognizes this claim as valid.
                             Al-Sunna then later showed their office ID badges.
11 Aug 2004                Released a videotape of the killing of a CIA agent
25 Aug 2004                Released a videotape of the killing of a second CIA agent
31 Aug 2004                Released a videotape of the killing of 12 hostages from Nepal who 
                             had come to work for contractors in Iraq after the war; one was
                             beheaded, the remaining eleven were shot in the back of the head.
 2 Oct 2004                Released a videotape of the killing of an Iraqi named Barie Nafi'a 
                             Daoud Ibrahim, accused of collaboration with the enemy.
22 Oct 2004                Released a videotape of the killing of an Iraqi named Seif Adnan 
                             Kanaan, accused of collaboration with the enemy.
23 Oct 2004                Released a videotape of the killing of a captured Iraqi civilian,
                             Yassar Musil, accused of collaboration with the enemy.
28 Oct 2004                Released a videotape of the killing of 11 captured members of the
                             Iraqi National Guard; one was beheaded, the remaining eleven 
                             were shot in the back of the head.
 4 Nov 2004                Released a videotape of the killing of a captured officer of the
                             new Iraqi Army working in tandem with US Army, Hussein Shunun.
                             Shunun had been captured by the group in Mosul a days earlier.
 9 May 2005                Announced the kidnapping of a Japanese man, Akihiko Saito, who was
                             working for British Security Contractor Hart GMSSCO. 
 5 Aug 2005                Claims to have killed eight US Marines in a shoot-out in Haditha,
                             though the U.S. claims the number is only six.
 

Leader 
Sep 2003 -                 Abu Abdullah al-Hassan bin Mahmoud



Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) (Jaishi-i-Muhammed, Army of Mohammed)

[flag of Jaish-e-Mohammed
                  (JEM)]

1994                       Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM)(Army of Mohammed), aim to unite all Kashmir 
                             with Pakistan. Most of the JEM's cadre and material 
                             resources have been drawn from the militant groups Harakat 
                             ul-Jihad al-Islami (HUJI) and the Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM).
23 Jan 2002 - 21 Feb 2002  Holds Daniel Pearl, Wall Street Journal Asia Bureau Chief, hostage 
                             before executing him.
Jul 2000                   Rocket-grenade attack on office of Chief minister in Srinagar.
2000                       Bombings in Qamarwari and Srinagar kill 21.
13 Dec 2001                Indian Parliament attack by Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed
                             against the building housing the Parliament of India in New
                             Delhi. The attack led to the death of 5 terrorists, 6 police
                             and 1 civilian.

Leader
1994 -                     Maulana Masood Azhar                  (b. 1968)
                             (under arrest 1994 - Dec 1999)

Locations:                 Pakistan, Kashmir
Strength:                  Several hundred armed supporters.



Jamaat ul-Fuqra

1980                       Jamaat ul-Fuqra founded to purify Islam through violence.
1980 - 1990                al Fuqra members have been either convicted or suspected in 13
                             assassinations and 17 fire bombings
across the United States.
 

Leader
1980 -                     Mubarak Ali Shah Gilani

Locations:                 North America, Caribbean, Pakistan.
Strength:                  Unknown



Japanese Red Army (JRA) (Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB), Nippon Sekigun, Nihon 
Sekigun, Holy War Brigade, and the Anti-War Democratic Front)

c.1970                    Japanese Red Army (JRA) breaks away from the Japanese 
                            Communist League-Red Army, founded to overthrow the Japanese
                            government and monarchy and to help foment world revolution.
31 Mar 1970               JRA hijacked a domestic Japan Airlines Boeing 727 carrying 129 
                            people at Tokyo International Airport. Eight Red Army members
                            wielded katanas and carried a bomb during Japan's most infamous
                            hijacking. The plane was forced to fly to Fukuoka and later Gimpo
                            Airport in Seoul, where all the passengers were freed. It then 
                            flew to North Korea, where the Red Army members abandoned the 
                            plane and the crew members were released.
30 May 1972               Responsible for massacre at Lod Airport Tel Aviv, Israel; 26 killed.
20 Jul 1973               Red Army members led PFLP guerrillas in hijacking a Japan Airlines
                            (JAL) plane over the Netherlands. The passengers and crew were
                            released in Libya, where hijackers blew up the plane. 
Jan 1974                  Laju incident: Red Army attacked a Shell facility in Singapore 
                            and took five hostages; simultaneously, the PFLP seized the 
                            Japanese embassy in Kuwait. The hostages were exchanged for a
                            ransom and safe passage to South Yemen in a JAL plane.
13 Sep 1974               JRA seize 11 hostages at French Embassy in The Hague. They
                            secure the release of Yukata Furuya from French prison.
Aug 1975                  The Red Army took more than 50 hostages at the AIA building housing
                            several embassies in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The hostages 
                            included the US consul and the Swedish charge d'affaires.
Sep 1977                  The Red Army hijacked Japan Airlines Flight 472 over India and 
                            forced it to land in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Japanese government
                            freed six imprisoned members of the group and allegedly paid a 
                            $6m ransom. 
Dec 1977                  A suspected lone member of the army hijacked Malaysia Airlines
                            Flight 653. The flight was carrying the Cuban ambassador to Tokyo
                            Mario Garcia. The Boeing 737 then crashed killing all on-board 
                            after he shot both pilots and himself.
Apr 1988                  Bombing of a USO club in Naples, Italy a suspected JRA operation
                            that killed five.
Apr 1988                  JRA operative Yu Kikumura was arrested with explosives on the New
                            Jersey Turnpike, apparently planning an attack to coincide with
                            the bombing in Naples.
Apr 2001                  During her trial hearing Shigenobu stated that she was disbanding
                            the Japanese Red Army.

Leaders
c.1970 - Nov 1987          Osamu Maruoka
Nov 1987 - Apr 2001        Fusako Shigenobu (f)              (b. 1945)
                             (arrested Nov 2000)

Locations:                 Japan, possibly traveling in Asia or Syrian controlled areas of
                             Lebanon.
Strength:                  About eight hard-core members; undetermined number of sympathizers.



Jemaah Islamiyah (Jemaah Islamiah, Islamic Group, Islamic Community)

1969                       Jemaah Islamiyah (Islamic Group or Islamic Community) created
                             to establish and Islamic state encompassing Indonesia,
                             Philippines, and Malaysia.
 1 Aug 2000                Attempted assassination of Philippine ambassador to Indonesia,
                             Leonides Caday. 
13 Sep 2000                Car bomb explosion tore through a packed parking deck beneath 
                             the Jakarta Stock Exchange building- killing 15 people 
                             and injuring 20.
24 Dec 2000                JI took part in a major coordinated terror strike, the Christmas
                             Eve bombings- 18 are killed.
12 Oct 2002                Suicide car bombing of Bali, Indonesia nightclub- killed 202 
                             mainly Australian tourists.
17 Oct 2002                Explosion of two bombs in the main shopping district of the 
                             mostly Christian city of Zamboanga, Philippines, killing six
                             and wounding about 150.
 5 Aug 2003                Bomb attack on the Marriott Hotel in Jakarta, Indonesia- killing
                             14 people.
 9 Sep 2004                Australian embassy bombing in Jakarta, Indonesia- several killed.
 

Spiritual Leader
1969 -                     Abu Bakar Bashir                    (b. 1938)
                             (Abubakar Ba'asyir, Abdus Somad)

Leaders
1969 - Nov 1999            Abdullah Sungkar                    (b. 1937 – d. 1999) 
1999 -                     Riduan Isamuddin "Hambali"          (b. 1966)
                             (11 Aug 2003, imprisoned by Indonesia)
 

Locations:                 Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia
Strength:                  ....



Kach/Kahane Chai

[Kakh Movement (Israel)]

1972                       Kahana LaKneset "Kach" ("Kahane to the Knesset") founded by 
                             radical Israeli-American Rabbi Meir Kahane. Its stated 
                             goal was to restore the biblical state of Israel.
1980's                     The Machteret, a terrorist group with links to Kach, staged 
                             several attacks, including attempts to kill Palestinian mayors.
 5 Nov 1990                Meir Kahane assassinated in the U.S.
Nov 1990                   Kahane Chai ("Kahane Lives") was founded by Meir Kahane's 
                             son Binyamin Kahane following his father's assassination.
                             They threatened to attack Arabs, Palestinians, and Israeli
                             government officials.
1993                       Claimed responsibility for several shooting attacks on West Bank
                             Palestinians in which four persons were killed and two were
                             wounded.
Feb 1994                   Baruch Goldstein opened fire on Palestinian worshipers inside
                             the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron, killing 29.
13 Mar 1994                Both organizations were declared to be terrorist
                             organizations by Israel. 
31 Dec 2001                Binyamin Kahane and his wife are murdered in a random ambush 
                             by Palestinians.
2001 - 2003                New Kach Movement existed. It maintained websites posting
                             Kahanist political commentary and held meetings with 
                             informal members. 

Leaders
1972 -  5 Nov 1990         Rabbi Meir David Kahane                 (b. 1932 - d. 1990)
Nov 1990 - 31 Dec 2001     Binyamin Ze'ev Kahane                   (b. 1961 - d. 2000)
2001 - 2003                Efraim Hershkovits

Location:                  Israel and West Bank settlements like Qiryat Araba.
Strength:                  Unknown, Membership of the two groups overlap.



Khalistan Liberation Force (KLF)

[Khalistan Liberation
                  Force logo]

1986                       Khalistan Liberation Force (KLF) violent Sikh separatist
                             group founded.
20 Aug 1991                Indian ambassador to Romania was wounded in a drive-by shooting
                             assassination attempt in Bucharest by KLF.

Chiefs
1986 - 198.                Shaheed Aroor Singh
198. - 21 May 1988         Shaheed Avtar Singh Brahma              (b. 1951 - d. 1988)
1988 - 31 Jul 1992         Shaheed Bhai Gurjant Singh Budhsinghwal (b. 1964 - d. 1992)
1992 - 199.                Shaheed Kuldip Singh Keepa Shekhupura   (d. 199.)
199. - 25 Feb 1994         Shaheed Navneet Singh Khadian           (b. 1970 - d. 1994)



Khmer Rouge (The Party of Democratic Kampuchea)

kh}krrf.gif

Feb 1963                   The Party of Democratic Kampuchea "Khmer Rouge" founded,
                             begins communist insurgency aimed at overthrowing the Cambodian
                             government.
13 May 1976 -  7 Jan 1979  In control of the Cambodian government, conducted a campaign of
                             genocide, killing an estimated 1.7 million.
 7 Jan 1979                Khmer Rouge government ended by Vietnamese invasion.
1991 - 1992                Signed a treaty calling for elections and disarmament. But in
                             1992 the Khmer Rouge resumed fighting and the following year
                             they rejected the results of the elections. 
1996                       Mass defection when around half the remaining soldiers (about
                             4,000) left.
from 1997                  Disintegration due to factional fighting.
 6 Mar 1999                Insurgency against Cambodian government ends, remnants 
                             are captured or surrender.

Secretaries-general of the Kampuchean Communist Party (KCP)
Feb 1963 - 15 Apr 1998     Pol Pot (Saloth Sar)              (b. 1925 - d. 1998)
15 Apr 1998 -  6 Mar 1999  Ta Mok (Chhit Choeun)             (b. 1926 - d. 2006)

Location:                  Cambodia
Strength:                  Fewer than 500, possibly no more than 100.



Kosovo Liberation Army  (KLA) (Ushtria Clirimtare e Kosovoes, UCK)

[Kosovo Liberation Army
                  (Ushtria Clirimtare e Kosovoes)]

1992                       Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës (UÇK)(Kosovo Liberation Army [KLA])
                             a militant Albanian separatist group is formed in Serbia
1995                       Begins carrying out small arms and sabotage attacks on Serbian
                             police.
20 Sep 1998                Kidnaps 13 Democratic League of Kosovo representatives for 48 hrs.
30 Jan 1999                Explosive detonation at Cafe Galarija in Pristina, 7 are injured.
Jun 1999                   Transformed into Kosovo Protection Force.

Commanders
1992 - 1999               ....
Feb 1999 - Apr 1999        Sulejman Selimi              (b. 1970?)
Apr 1999 - Jun 1999        Agim Çeku                    (b. 1960)
 

Locations:                 Kosovo province of Serbia
Strength:                  several hundred to several thousand.



Kurdish Hezbollah (Turkish-Hezbollah)

late 1980's               Kurdish-Hezbollah or Turkish-Hezbollah, a Kurdish Islamic (Sunni)
                            extremist organization that arose in response to Kurdistan 
                            Workers Party (PKK) atrocities against Muslims in southeastern
                            Turkey, where Kurdish-Hezbollah seeks to establish an independent
                            Islamic state.
mid-to-late 1990's        Nearly 70 bodies of Turkish and Kurdish businessmen and 
                            journalists found that Kurdish-Hezbollah had tortured and 
                            brutally murdered.
Jan 2000                  Turkish security forces kill Huseyin Velioglu, the leader of
                            Kurdish-Hezbollah.
Jan 2001                  Operatives assassinated the Diyarbakir police chief.

Leaders
1980's - Jan 2000         Hüseyin Velioglu                   (b. 19.. - d. 2000)
2000 -       ;            ....

Locations:                Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria.
Strength:                 17,000 to 20,000 members.



Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)
(Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan, Kadek, Kongra-Gel)

Former
                        flag of PKK
                 Former PKK Flag
[Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK/Kadek)
                        flag]

27 Oct 1978                Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) established to form an independent 
                             Kurdish state in southeastern Turkey, where the population
                             is predominantly Kurdish and improve rights for Kurds in Turkey.
Oct 1998                   Syrian government expelled PKK leader and known elements of the
                             group from its territory.
Sep 1999                   PKK declares its disarmament, drops use of word "Kurdistan."
16 Apr 2002                Renamed the Kurdish Freedom and Democracy Congress (Kadek),
                             purportedly renounces terrorism.

Chairmen
1978 - 1999                Abdullah Öcalan "Serok Apo"        (b. 1948)
                             (Turkish prisoner from 15 Feb 1999)
.... -                     Murat Karayilan

Locations:                 Turkey, Europe, Syria, and the Middle East.
Strength:                  4,000 to 5,000, with thousands of sympathizers in Turkey and Europe



Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT) (Army of the Righteous, Lashkar-e-Toiba)

[Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT)
                  (Army of the Righteous, Lashkar-e-Toiba) ]

1990                       Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT) (Army of the Righteous) formed to unite 
                             Kashmir with Pakistan as the armed wing of the Pakistan-based 
                             religious organization, Markaz-ud-Dawa-wal-Irshad (MDI) — a 
                             Sunni anti-U.S. missionary organization. One of the three
                             largest and best trained groups fighting in Kashmir against
                             India, it is not connected to a political party. The group has
                             conducted a number of operations against Indian troops and
                             civilian targets in Kashmir since 1993.
Aug 2000                   Suspected of attacks that kill nearly 100.
17 Jan 2001                A heavily armed group of Muslim militants attempted to storm the
                             Srinagar airport, triggering a fierce gun-battle that ended 
                             with 10 people dead and 8 wounded.
13 Dec 2001                Indian Parliament attack by Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed
                             against the building housing the Parliament of India in New
                             Delhi. The attack led to the death of 5 terrorists, 6 police
                             and 1 civilian.

13 Jul 2002                Suspected Islamic militants burst into a mainly Hindu slum in 
                             Jammu, Kashmir, India on a Saturday night opening fire on
                             local residents, killing at least 27 people. Nearly 30
                             were wounded.
24 Nov 2002                Islamic militants raided the Hindu Raghunath Temple complex in 
                             Indian-controlled Kashmir, killing 11 people before being 
                             shot dead by security forces. At least 50 people were injured 
                             in the attack.
11 Jul 2006                Mumbai train bombings a series of seven bomb blasts that took place
                             over a period of 11 minutes on the Suburban Railway in Mumbai
                             (Bombay), 209 people lost their lives and over 700 were injured
.
26-29 Nov 2008            
Mumbai attacks take place. Eight of the attacks occurred in South
                             Mumbai: at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Oberoi Trident,
                             the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Leopold Cafe, Cama Hospital,
                             the Orthodox Jewish-owned Nariman House, the Metro Cinema,
                             and a lane behind the Times of India building. There was also an
                             explosion at the Mazagaon docks, in Mumbai's port area, and in a
                             taxi at Vile Parle. 173 people are killed and at least 308 are
                             wounded.


Leaders
1990 -                     Hafiz Muhammad Saeed                   (b. 1950)
                             (under arrest 21 Dec 2001 - 31 Mar 2002,
                             from 9 Aug - 17 Oct  2006)
.... -                     Mohammed Latif

Locations:                 Afghanistan, Pakistan, India
Strength:                  Several thousand armed supporters.



Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) (Tamil Tigers)

[Liberation
                          Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 1976-1990]
              1976 - 27 Nov 1990
[Liberation
                          Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) flag 1990-2009]
              27 Nov 1990 - 19 May 2009
 5 May 1976                Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) established to create 
                             an independent Tamil state.
23 Jul 1983                13 soldiers killed in LTTE ambush in Jaffna, sparking anti-Tamil
                             riots leading to the deaths of an estimated several hundred
                             Tamils. Conflict develops in north of island between army
                             and LTTE. 
 3 May 1986                Explosion on-board an Air Lanka Flight, killing 20.
17 Apr 1987                Tamils ambush 3 buses and 2 trucks near Trincomalee, killed 120.
 2 Mar 1991                Suicide bomb kills Sri Lanka Defense Minister Ranjan Wijeratne
                             and 19 others.
21 May 1991                LTTE-affiliated suicide bomber Thenmuli Rajaratnam assassinated
                             former Indian prime minister Rajiv Gandhi while the latter was
                             campaigning for a parliamentary candidate in Tamil Nadu, also
                             killing an additional 13 bystanders.
 1 May 1993                Assassinated the President of Sri Lanka, Ranasinghe Premadasa 
                             while he was attending the annual May Day rally. 
31 Jan 1996                An attack by the LTTE on the Colombo Central Bank killed 90 and 
                             injured a further 1,400 people, damaging other buildings in
                             the process.
15 Oct 1997                LTTE bomb exploded at the Colombo World Trade Center, killing
                             13 and injuring hundreds. 
 5 Jan 1998                Four likely members of the Black Tiger squad drove an
                             explosives-laden truck into the Sri Dalada Maligawa (or "Temple
                             of the Tooth"), a major Buddhist shrine, killing 7 and injuring
                             25. 
 5 Mar 1998               Two LTTE bombs exploded aboard a bus in Maradana, killing 32
                             and injuring 252 passersby. 
14 May 1998                A member of the Black Tiger squad jumped in front of a vehicle
                            carrying Sri Lankan Brigadier Larry Wijeratne and detonated
                             explosives, killing the general and two guards. 
29 Jul 1999                LTTE suicide bomber killed Sri Lankan MP Neelan Thiruchelvam 
                             a Tamil, along with 2 others and 6 bystanders were injured. 
18 Dec 1999                A female LTTE suicide bomber exploded herself at a rally in 
                             Colombo in an apparent assassination attempt on Sri Lankan 
                             President Chandrika Kumaratunga, who was injured in the blast.
                             10 people were killed and three injured. 
18 May 2000                Suspected LTTE bomber killed 23 and injured 70 at a Buddhist
                             temple in Batticaloa during celebrations of the Vesak holiday. 
 8 Jun 2000                Suspected LTTE suicide bomber killed Sri Lankan Industrial
                             Development Minister C.V. Goonaratne during a holiday march
                             in Colombo. A further 20 were killed and 60 wounded.
 3 Oct 2000                LTTE bomb killed parliamentary candidate Mohammed Baithullah
                             and more than twenty others in Muttur. At least 49 others were
                             injured. Baithullah had previously served as an intelligence
                             officer in the Sri Lankan police. 
24 Jul 2001                LTTE suicide squad attacked Bandaranaike International Airport.
                             In three waves, a highly trained and heavily armed 14-man squad
                             penetrated the 800-acre high security complex and destroyed or
                             damaged 26 commercial and military aircraft. 
Feb 2002                   Cease-fire agreement with the Sri Lankan government.
12 Aug 2005                Sri Lankan Foreign minister Lakshman Kadirgamar is shot 
                             by an unidentified sniper in Colombo at his private residence.
                             LTTE denies responsibility.
 1 Jan 2008                Assassination of a member of parliament from the opposition United
                              National Party (UNP), T. Maheswaran.
 8 Jan 2008                Assassination of Sri Lankan Nation-Building Minister D.M.
                             Dassanayake.
 6 Apr 2008                Assassination of Sri Lankan Highway Minister Jeyaraj Fernandopulle.
17 May 2009                LTTE announces unconditional surrender to Sri Lankan government.
18 May 2009                LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran, his elder son Charles Anthony,
                             LTTE intelligence chief Pottu Amman and Soosai, the head of the
                             LTTE naval wing are killed by the Sri Lankan army.
21 May 2009                President of Sri Lanka announces a formal end of the war with LTTE.
 

National Leaders
 5 May 1976 - 18 May 2009  Velupillai Prabhakaran "Thambi"          (b. 1954 - d. 2009)
Jul? 2009 -                Selvarasa Pathmanathan                   (b. 1965)
                             (Sri Lankan prisioner from 5 Aug 2009)

Locations:                 Sri Lanka, mainly in Jaffna peninsular.
Strength:                  8,000 to 10,000 armed combatants in Sri Lanka, with a core of
                              trained fighters of approximately 3,000 to 6,000.



Lord's Resistance Army (LRA)

[Lord's
                        Resistance Army (LRA) possible flag]
                      LRA Flag 
[Lord's
                        Resistance Army (LRA) possible flag variant]
                    Possible Variant

Jan 1987                   United Holy Salvation Army begins warfare against Uganda's govt.
                             The insurgency has been mainly contained to the region known
                             as Acholiland, consisting of the districts of Kitgum, Gulu,
                             and Pader, though since 2002 violence has overflowed into 
                             other districts. 
1992                       Renamed Lord's Resistance Army (LRA).
1994 - Dec 2001            Supported by the government of The Sudan.
 4 Aug 2006                Cease-fire announced by LRA.
26 Aug 2006                Ugandan government and LRA signed a truce. Under the terms of
                             the agreement, LRA forces are to leave Uganda and gather in 2
                             assembly areas protected by the government of Sudan;
                             the Ugandan government agreed not to attack those areas.
19 Feb 2008                Government and LRA sign interim peace accord.

Prophet
Jan 1987 -                 Joseph Kony                    (b. 1961)

Locations:                 Sudan, Uganda
Strength:                  500 - 1,000, possibly up to 3,000



Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)

[Loyalist Volunteer Force
                  (LVF) flag]

Jul 1996                   LVF formed as a faction of the mainstream loyalist Ulster
                             Volunteer Force (UVF), to prevent a political settlement with 
                            Irish nationalists in Northern Ireland by attacking Catholic
                            politicians, civilians, and Protestant politicians who
                             endorse the Northern Ireland peace process.
Jul 1997                   Kills an 18 year-old Catholic school girl because she had a 
                             Protestant boyfriend.
15 May 1998 - 30 Oct 2005  Observed cease-fire. 
30 Oct 2005                LVF announced an end to the use of violence.

Leaders
Jul 1996 - 27 Dec 1997     Billy "King Rat" Wright             (b. 1960 - d. 1997) 
                             (imprisoned from Mar 1997)
Dec 1997 - 2002            Mark "Swinger" Fulton               (b. 19.. - d. 2002)
2002 - 30 Oct 2005         ....

Locations:                 Northern Ireland
Strength:                  Approximately 250.



Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front (FPMR)

[Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic
                  Front (FPMR) flag]

1983                       Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez (Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic
                             Front)(FPMR) founded to carry out missions as armed wing
                             of Chilean Communist Party.
Sep 1983                   FPMR attacked Pinochet's car in an assassination attempt. Five 
                             of Pinochet's body guards were killed.
late 1980's                The organization splintered into two factions, with
                             one faction becoming a political party in 1991. The dissident
                             wing the FPMR/D continues terrorist activities.
 1 Apr 1991                Assassination of Independent Democrat Union senator Jaime Guzmán.
1993                       Bombed two McDonald's restaurants.
Dec 1996                   Stages successful escape from prison, using a helicopter, for
                             several of its members.
30 Apr 1997                Announced it was leaving the armed struggle and to become a
                             legal political organization.

Leader
1983 - 30 Apr 1997         Sergio Galvarino Apablaza              (b. 1950)
                             "Comandante Salvador"

Locations:                 Chile
Strength:                  50 to 100



Mojahedin-e-Khalq (MEK) (National Liberation Army of Iran,  People's Mujahedin of Iran)
 
[Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization flag]
        Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization 
National
                            Liberation Army of Iran
        National Liberation Arny of Iran 

 6 Sep 1965                Mojahedin-e-Khalq (MEK) formed against the Shah's authoritative
                             regime (The National Liberation Army of Iran (NLA) [the militant
                             wing of the MEK], the People's Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI),
                             National Council of Resistance (NCR), Muslim Iranian
                             Student's Society [front organization used to garner financial
                             support]). The MEK continues to conduct a worldwide campaign
                             against the Iranian government, which stresses propaganda and
                             occasionally uses terrorist violence.
1970's                     Staged terrorist attacks inside Iran and killed several U.S.
                             military personnel and civilians working on defense
                             projects in Tehran.
25 May 1972                Founders of the People’s Mojahedin Organization of Iran (PMOI),
                             Mohammad Hanifnejad, Saeed Mohsen and Ali Asghar Badizadegan,
                             along with two members of the PMOI leadership, Mahmoud
                             Askarizadeh and Rasoul Meshkinfam, were put before death squads
                             and were executed.
1979                       Expelled from Iran after the Islamic Revolution.
1980's                     MEK's leaders were forced by Iranian security forces to flee
                             to France.
28 Jun 1981                Bombs detonated at the headquarters of the Islamic Republic Party.
                             About 70 high-ranking officials, including Chief Justice
                             Mohammad Beheshti, cabinet members, and elected members of
                             parliament, were killed.
Jul 1981                   Republic of Iran formed in Paris exile, in opposition
                             to the Islamic Republic of Iran.
30 Aug 1981                A bomb detonated killing the popularly elected President Mohammad
                             Ali Raja´i and Premier Mohammad Javad Bahonar. An active member
                             of the Mujahedin, Massoud Kashmiri, was identified as the
                             perpetrator.
1986                       PMOI headquarters moved to Iraq.
26-29 Jul 1988             National Liberation Army of Iran (NLA) advanced under heavy Iraqi
                             air cover, crossing the Iranian border from Iraq. It seized and
                             razed to the ground the Iranian town of Islamabad-e Gharb.
1992                       Conducts attacks on Iranian embassies in 13 different countries.
Aug 1993                   National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), the Iranian
                             Resistance's parliament, elects Maryam Rajavi (f) as Iran's 
                             future president for the transitional period following the 
                             mullahs' overthrow.
22 Aug 1998                Assassinates Asadollah Lajevardi, former director of Evin Prison.
10 Apr 1999                Assassinates Brigadier General Ali Sayyad Shirazi, the deputy joint
                             chief of staff of Iran's armed forces.
 5 Feb 2000                A mortar attack on Iran's Presidential Palace was carried out by
                             the Mujahedin-e Khalq (MKO), based in neighboring Iraq. 
                             According to the official IRNA news agency, the attack, which 
                             took place at 19:30 on a Saturday evening killed one person--
                             a 34 year-old worker in a print shop--and injured five. President
                             Mohammad Khatami was in his office at the time but was not hurt 
                             in the attack.
2001                       PMOI officially renounced violence.
15 Apr 2003                After U.S. forces in Iraq bomb camps as part of a quid pro quo with
                             Tehran. PMOI entered into a ceasefire agreement with the
                             coalition, and voluntarily handed over its weaponry.
 1 Jan 2009                U.S. military transferred control of Camp Ashraf to the Iraqi
                              government. On the same day, Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki
                              announced that the militant group would not be allowed to base
                              its operations from Iraq.

Leaders
 6 Sep 1965 - 25 May 1972  Mohammad Hanifnejad                (d. 1972)
                           + Saeed Mohsen                     (d. 1972) 
                           + Ali-Asghar Badizadegan           (d. 1972) 
Chairman of the National Council of the Resistance
Jul 1981 - 2003?           Massoud Rajavi 
                            (from 2003, disappeared and is presumed either
                             dead or in hiding
)

Presidents-Elect of the Iranian Resistance
Jul 1981 - Aug 1993        Abolhassan Bani-Sadr               (b. 1933)
Aug 1993 -                 Maryam Rajavi (f)                  (b. 1953)            MEK
                             (18 Jun - 3 Jul 2003 imprisoned in France)

Locations:                 Iraq, Iran, France
Strength:                  Several thousand fighters based in Iraq with an extensive
                             overseas support structure. Most of the fighters are
                             organized in the MEK's National Liberation Army (NLA).



Morzanist Patriotic Front (FPM)

late 1980's                Frente Patriótico Morazanista formed to protest U.S. intervention
                             in Hondura
s.
1988                       Claimed credit for bombing of Peace Corps office.
1989                       Bus bombing wounded three servicemen, attacked a U.S. convoy.
1990                       Bus bombing wounded seven U.S. servicemen.

Leaders
1980's -       ;           ....

Location:                  Honduras
Strength:                  Unknown, probably relatively small.



Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF)

[Moro Islamic Liberation Front
                  (MILF)]

Mar 1984                   "New MNLF" officially declared to be a separate organization
                             with the name Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF).
Jan 1987                   MNLF signed an agreement relinquishing its goal of independence
                             and accepting Philippine government's offer of autonomy for
                             Muslim regions; rejected by MILF.
30 Dec 2000                Wave of six bombings in Manila kills 22, injures 45.
 4 Mar 2003                Davos City Airport bombed- 24 killed, 100 injured.
 2 Apr 2003                Davos City Airport bombed again- 16 killed, 55 injured.
11 May 2003                Bombings in Koronadal City, Maguindano- kills 9 injures 43.
Jan 2005                   Attacks government troops in Maguindano- 23 killed.

Leader
26 Dec 1977 -              Hashim Salamat

Locations:                 The Philippines (Palawan, Basilan, Sulu archipelago),
                             and Southeast Asia
Strength:                  estimated 15,000 members



National Liberation Front of Corsica (FLNC)

[Flag of Corsica]

1976                       FLNC -Fronte di Liberazione Naziunale di a Corsica (Front de 
                             Libération Nationale de la Corse) founded by merger of
                             two other Corsican terrorist organizations: Ghjustizia Paolina 
                             and the Fronte Paesanu Corsu di Liberazione. Aimed at 
                             Self-determination for Corsica through independence.
end 1980's                 Split into into the "canal historique" (historic channel) and the
                             "canal habituel" (usual channel), followed by a whole series of
                             new splits and the creation of a number of other terrorist
                             organizations: Resistenza, Fronte Ribellu, Front Armé 
                             Révolutionnaire Corse, etc. Some of these groups only existed for
                             a few years. 
30 Jan 1997                FLNC-canal habituel decided to end activities.
 6 Feb 1998                Implicated in the assassination of prefect Claude Erignac.
1999                       FLNC-canal historique merged with some of the other underground 
                             organizations, adopting the name FLNC again.

Leaders
1976 -       ;             ....

Locations:                 Corsica, France
Strength:                  Estimated at 600.



National Liberation Army -Colombia  (ELN)

[National Liberation Army
                  -Colombia (ELN) flag]

1965                       Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN)(National Liberation Army) 
                             formed as a Marxist insurgent group formed by urban intellectuals
                             inspired by Fidel Castro and Che Gueva. Aim replacing the
                             current government with a Marxist regime in Colombia.
late 1990's                Conducted a campaign of mass each of which involved at least one
                             U.S. citizen.
24-27 Jul 2004             Abducted Misael Vacca Ramírez, the Catholic Bishop of Yopal,

Leaders
1965 - 1970's              Fabio Vásquez Castaño 
1970's -                   Nicolás Rodríguez Bautista "Gabino"     (b. 1950)
                           + Gregorio Manuel Pérez Martínez        (b. 1943 - d. 1998)
                              "el Cura Pérez" 
                              (to 14 Feb 1998)

Location:                  Colombia (in rural and mountainous regions).
Strength:                  Approximately 3,000 to 6,000 armed combatants.



New People's Army (NPA)
 
[New People's
                            Army (NPA) flag to 1986]
                         to 1986
[New People's
                            Army (NPA) 1986-1999]
                    1986 - 1999 
[New
                            People's Army (NPA) 1999]
                  Adopted 1999

29 Mar 1969                New People's Army (NPA) formed as the military wing of the 
                             Communist Party of the Philippines, to overthrow the government 
                             of the Philippines through protracted guerrilla warfare.
1989                       Claims responsibility for the assassination of U.S. Army
                             Colonel Nick Rowe.

Leader
29 Mar 1969 -              Jose Maria Sison "Armando Liwanag"   (b. 1939)
                             (from 1986 in exile)

Location:                  Philippines (Manila, rural Luzon, Visayas, and part of Mindanao)
Strength:                  6,000-8,000



The Order

Sep 1983                    The Order (or The Order of the Silent Brotherhood), an 
                              American neo-Nazi organization. Self-described white
                              nationalist and revolutionary group, founded to oppose 
                              the United States government which it called "Zionist Occupation
                              Government (ZOG)." The group was partly modeled on, and was
                              named for, a fictional group in the neo-Nazi novel "The Turner
                              Diaries."  The Order's goals included the establishment of an
                              all white (and non-Jewish) homeland, presumably involving the
                              extermination of non-white and Jewish people as detailed in 
                              in that book. Group founded in Metaline Falls, Washington
                              by Robert J. Mathews.
18 Jun 1984                Gunned down controversial liberal Jewish KOA 850 AM talk radio 
                             host Alan Berg at his home in Denver, Colorado.
Jul 1984                   Used a dozen men to rob a Brinks' truck of $3,800,000.
 8 Dec 1984                Mathews refused surrender after an intense exchange of gunfire. 
                             The FBI then fired several M-79 Starburst flares inside the
                             house, burning it to the ground and killing Mathews.

Leader
Sep 1983 -  8 Dec 1984     Robert Jay Mathews                (b. 1953 – d. 1984)



Organisation de l'Armée Secrète (OAS) (Secret Army Organization) 

(Organisation armée
                  secrète public logo)

Jan 1961                   Organisation de l'Armée Secrète (OAS)(Secret Army Organization)
                             French right-wing terrorist group formed to resist the granting 
                             of independence to the French colony of Algeria formed by
                             French "stay behinds", former French Army officers, Foreign 
                             Legion members from Indochina War, Colons, local Pieds Noirs.
1962                       OAS attempted to assassinate French President Charles de Gaulle 
                             several times. The most prominent attempt was a 1962 ambush at 
                             Petit-Clamart, a Paris suburb, planned by military engineer 
                             Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry.
Mar 1962                   Mouloud Feraoun (b. 1913 - d. 1962), an Algerian writer born in 
                             Tizi Hibel, Kabylie assassinated by the OAS.
Mar 1962                   Over 100 bombs a day were detonated by the OAS.
Apr 1962                   Leader of the OAS Louis Salan captured.
17 Jun 1962                OAS agreed to the ceasefire.
27 Oct 1962                Possibly responsible for the death of Enrico Mattei, head
                             of the Italian oil company, Agip and supporter of 
                             Algerian independence.
1963                       Group is effectively eliminated.
 

Leader
Jan 1961 - Apr 1962        Raoul Albin Louis Salan                 (b. 1899 - d. 1984)
 

Locations:                 Algeria, France
Strength:                  estimated several thousand members



The Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)-Shaqaqi Faction 

[Palestine Islamic Jihad
                  (PIJ)-Shaqaqi Faction flag]

1979/80                    The Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) (Harakat al-Jihad al-Islami
                             al-Filastini) originates among militant Palestinians in the
                             Gaza Strip. Aims to create an Islamic Palestinian state and
                             to destroy Israel through holy war. Also opposes moderate
                             Arab governments that it believes have been "tainted" by 
                             Western secularism. 
17 Mar 2006                Suicide bombing of a restaurant in mall at Old Bus Station
                             in Tel Aviv killing 9 and 49 are wounded 49 more.

Secretaries-general
1979/80 - Oct 1995         Fathi Abd al-Aziz Shaqaqi          (b. 1951 - d. 1995)
Oct 1995 -                 Shiekh Abdullah Ramadan Shallah    (b. 1958)

Locations:                 Israel, Gaza Strip, West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon, Iran, and Syria.
Strength:                  Unknown



Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)-Abu Abbas Faction

[Palestine Liberation
                  Front (PLF)-Abu Abbas Faction flag]

1961 - Dec 1967            Original Palestinian Liberation Front was founded by Ahmad Jibril,
                             but in Dec 1967 it merged with the Heroes of the Return group 
                             and The Youth of Revenge group (the military wing of the Arab
                             Nationalist Movement -ANM) to form the Popular Front for the
                             Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). 
24 Apr 1977                Splits from the PFLP-GC, goal: creation of a Palestinian state.
1983/85                    After its initial break with the PFLP-GC, split again into pro-PLO,
                             pro-Syrian, and pro-Libyan factions. Each faction continued to
                             carry the original name and each claimed to represent the 
                             mother-organization. 
20 Oct 1985                The Abu Abbas-led faction responsible for attack on the cruise 
                             ship Achille Lauro and the murder of U.S. citizen Leon 
                             Klinghoffer.
25 Apr 2003                Abu Abbas captured by U.S. forces in Iraq.
 

Secretaries-general
1961 - Dec 1967            Ahmad Jabril                  (b. 1928)
24 Apr 1977 - 1984/85      Tal'at Ya'akub                (d. 1988)
                           + Muhammad Zaidan "Abu Abbas" (b. 1948 - d. 2004)
- pro-Syrian faction in Damascus
1984/85 - 1988             Abd al-Fatah Ghanim
- pro-Syrian/Libyan faction in Beirut
1984/85 - Nov 1988         Tal'at Ya'akub               (s.a.)
- pro-PLO/Iraqi faction in Tunis (from Nov 1985 in Baghdad)
1984/85 - 25 Apr 2003      Muhammad Zaidan "Abu Abbas"   (s.a.)

Location:                  Tunisia (to 1985), then Algeria, Libya, Gaza, Iraq (1994-2003)
Strength:                  Unknown



Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
 
[Palestine]
                        Adopted 1 Dec 1964 

1964                       Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) founded.
1969                       Organization of the Islamic Conference admits 
                             Palestine, represented by the PLO.
1970                       Avivim school bus massacre by PLO members, killed nine
                             children, three adults and crippled 19.
1972                       Munich massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympics was 
                             carried out by the Black September group, which was allegedly
                             affiliated with the PLO. This group also hijacked a plane flying
                             from Belgium to Tel Aviv.
1974                       Members of Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine carried 
                             out the Kiryat Shmona massacre at an apartment building in
                             Israel, killing 18 people, 9 of whom were children.
22 Nov 1974                PLO is granted observer status in the United Nations. 
 9 Sep 1976                Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) admitted
                             as a member of Arab League.
13 Aug 1978                PLO headquarters in Beirut bombed, 150 are killed.
 1 Oct 1985                Israeli Air Force bombed the PLO's Tunis headquarters, killing
                             more than 60 people.
16 Apr 1988                Khalil al-Wazir "Abu Jihad", PLO 2nd in command, is assassinated
                             in Tunis.
15 Nov 1988                Palestine National Congress meeting in 
                             Algiers declared a Palestinian state on the 
                             West Bank and Gaza Strip (to no effect). 
14 Dec 1988                PLO renounces terrorism and accepts Israel's right to exist.
 4 May 1994                Palestinian Authority created to administer most
                             of Gaza Strip and parts of West Bank.

Chairmen of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Executive Committee 
10 Jun 1964 - 24 Dec 1967  Ahmad ash-Shuqeiri                 (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
24 Dec 1967 -  2 Feb 1969  Yahya Hammuda                      (b. 1908 - d. 2006)
 2 Feb 1969 - 11 Nov 2004  Yasser Arafat "Abu Amar"           (b. 1929 - d. 2004)
                             (in exile in Jordan to Apr 1971; Lebanon 1971 -
                             Dec 1982; and Tunis Dec 1982 - May 1994)
29 Oct 2004 -              Mahmoud Ridha Abbas "Abu Mazen"    (b. 1935)
                             (acting [for Arafat] to 11 Nov 2004) 


Palestinian National Liberation Movement (Fatah)

Fatah [Harakat
                    al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini, (Palestine
                    National Liberation Movement)

1958/59                    Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini ("Fatah")
                            (Palestinian National Liberation Movement founded.


Leaders
1958/59 - 11 Nov 2004      Yasser Arafat "Abu Amar"           (b. 1929 - d. 2004)
11 Nov 2004
-              Farouk al-Kaddoumi                 (b. 1931)



Palestinian Popular Struggle Front (PPSF)

[Palestinian Popular
                    Struggle Front]

1967                       Palestinian Popular Struggle Front (PPSF), occasionally 
                             abbreviated Popular Struggle Front (PSF) founded as the 
                             Palestinian Popular Struggle Organization (PPSO) in the West
                             Bank. It had a far-left Baath-influenced ideology.
1969                       Attacked civilian Israeli passengers at the Athens Airport.
1971 - 1974                Merged with Fatah.
Sep 1991                   Rejoins PLO.
1992 -                     Khalid ‘Abd al-Majid, a Palestinian politician and militia
                             leader, heads a breakaway faction of the Palestinian Popular
                             Struggle Front. 

Secretary-general
1967 - 1971                Samir Ghawshah (Ghoshen)     (b. 1940)
                             (1st time)
1974 -                     Samir Ghawshah (2nd time)    (s.a.)
- breakaway faction leader -
1992 -                     Khalid ‘Abd al-Majid  

Locations:                 Syria, Lebanon
Strength:                  fewer than 300



Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) 

[Popular Front for the
                    Liberation of Palestine [PFLP]

11 Dec 1967                Founded in the immediate aftermath of the Six Day War.
1968                       PFLP joins the PLO; in 1974 it exits from the executive committee 
                             (but not the PLO), rejoining in 1981.
23 Jul 1968                PFLP hijacks an Israeli El Al flight from Rome, lands in Algeria.
1969                       PFLP re-designates itself as a Marxist-Leninist movement. 
29 Aug 1969                TWA flight from Rome to Athens and Tel Aviv hijacked
                             to Damascus. 2 Israeli hostages freed 5 Dec 1969 for 13
                             Syrians held in Israel.
 6 Sep 1970                PFLP seizes three planes en route to New York a Swiss Air
                             DC-8 from Zurich, TWA Boeing 707 from Frankfurt, and
                             a Pan Am 747 from Amsterdam.  Swiss air and TWA are
                             flown to Dawson's Field in Jordan, the Pan Am to Beirut
                             then Cairo. On 9 Sep 1970 a BOAC VC10 is hijacked en route
                             Bombay to London and taken to Dawson's Field. The 3 planes
                             in Jordan are destroyed 12 Sep 1970, and hostages released.
21 Feb 1972                Lufthansa flight from New Delhi to Athens hijacked and
                             diverted to Aden. Passengers and crew freed 23 Feb when
                             West Germany pays $5 million ransom.
20 Jul 1973                PFLP and Japanese Red Army hijack a JAL 747 en route from
                             Amsterdam to Tokyo, Plane lands at Dubai then flies
                             to Benghazi, Libya.
1993                       Announces opposition to Declaration of Principles between
                             Israel and PLO and suspended participation in the PLO.
27 Aug 2001                Israel assassinates PFLP leader Abu Ali Mustafa.
17 Oct 2001                Assassinates Israeli Tourism Minister Rehavam Zeevi.
2002                       Ahmed Saadat imprisoned by Palestinian Authority in Jericho
17 Mar 2006                Israeli seizes Saadat from the Palestinian prison.

Secretaries-general
11 Dec 1967 - Jul 2000     George Habash "Abu Maysa"        (b. 1926 - d. 2008)
Jul 2000 - 27 Aug 2001     Mustafa Zibri "Abu Ali Mustafa"  (b. 1938 - d. 2001)
 3 Oct 2001 -              Ahmed Sa'adat                    (b. 1954) 
                             (imprisoned from 2002)

Locations:                 Syria, Lebanon, Israel, West Bank, and Gaza Strip
Strength:                  about 800.



Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC)

[Popular Front for
                    the Liberation of Palestine-General Command
                    (PFLP-GC)]

Oct 1968                   Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command 
                             (PFLP-GC) split from PLFP, opposes PLO, backed by Syria. 
                             Known for cross-border terrorist attacks into Israel using 
                             unusual means.

Secretary-general
Oct 1968 -                 Ahmad Jabril                 (b. 1928)

Locations:                 Syria, Lebanon, Israel, West Bank, and Gaza Strip, Europe,
                             and Middle East 
Strength:                  Several hundred.



Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-Special Command (PFLP-SC)

[Popular Front for the
                    Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC)

1978                       Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-Special Command 
                             (PFLP-SC) split faction from Wadie Haddad's PFLP-SG, as a 
                             separate Marxist-Leninist group.
Apr 1985                   Attacks a restaurant in Torrejon, Spain frequented by U.S. military
1980's                     Believed to have ceased operations.

Secretary-general
1978 - 1980's              Abu Salim

Locations:                 Lebanon, Middle East, Europe
Strength:                  50


Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-Special Operations Group (PFLP-SG)
(Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - External Operations (PFLP-EO) or Special Operations (PFLP-SO)
or Special Operations Group (PFLP-SOG)

1969                       Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - External Operations
                            (PFLP-EO) or Special Operations (PFLP-SO) or Special Operations
                             Group (PFLP-SOG) were organizational names used by Palestinian
                             radical Wadie Haddad when engaging in international attacks, that
                             were regarded as terrorism, and were not sanctioned by the PFLP. 
Jun 1976                   Organized the Entebbe hijacking in collaboration with the 
                             West German Red Army Faction; Hadad expelled from PFLP.
12 May 1978                Haddad dies.

Secretary-general
1969 - 12 May 1978         Wadie Haddad "Abu Hani"          (b. 1927 - d. 1978)

Locations:                 Lebanon, Middle East, Europe
Strength:                  unknown


al-Qaeda (The Base, Qa‘idat al-Jihad, Islamic Army for the Liberation of the Holy Places, World
Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders, Islamic Salvation Foundation, Osama bin Laden
Network)

[al-Qaeda flag]

1988                       Established by Osama bin Laden to create a pan-Islamic Caliphate
                             throughout the world by working with allied Islamic extremist
                             groups to overthrow regimes it deems "non-Islamic," and expelling
                             Westerners and non-Muslims from Muslim countries.
26 Feb 1993                Bombing of the World Trade Center, NYC- 6 killed, 1,000 injured.
 4 Oct 1993                Claims to have shot down U.S. helicopters in Somalia -
                             14 servicemen killed.
22 Feb 1998                Bin Laden issues a fatwa against the United States. 
25 Jun 1996                U.S. military base in Saudi Arabia bombed- 19 killed.
 7 Aug 1998                Bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and
                             Dar es Salaam, Tanzania - at least 220 persons are killed
                             5,000 are injured.
12 Oct 2000                Bombing of the USS Cole in Aden, Yemen- 17 U.S. sailors killed.
11 Sep 2001                Planes are crashed into the Pentagon, Virginia and World Trade 
                             Center, NYC. World Trade Center is entirely destroyed-
                             about 3,000 people die in both attacks and the hijackings.
11 Apr 2002                Bombing of Djerba, Tunisia synagogue - 19 are killed.
12 Oct 2002                Bombing of Bali, Indonesia nightclubs - 202 killed. 
20 Dec 2003                Bombing of British consulate in Istanbul, Turkey - 27 killed.
11 Mar 2004                Bombing of Madrid, Spain commuter trains- 191 killed, 1,800 injured
 7 Jul 2005                Attacks in London, U.K. on commuter trains and buses - 50 die, 700
                             are injured.
 9 Nov 2005                Bombing of three hotels in Amman, Jordan -56 killed, 96 injured.
11 Apr 2007               Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb claimed to have been
                            responsible for the Algiers bombings. Two bombs exploded within
                            a short time of each other, one at the prime ministers office
                            and the other at a police station. The blasts killed 33 people.
 2 Apr 2008               Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility for the bombing of the Danish
                            embassy in Pakistan. A car bomb killed six persons and injuring
                            several.
 1 May 2011               Osama bin Laden is confirmed dead by the United States, having
                            been killed in Abbottabad, Pakistan by U.S. special forces.

Leaders
1988 -  2 May 2011        Osama bin Mohammed bin Laden            (b. 1957 - d. 2011)
17 May 2011 - Jun 2011    Saif al-Adel (interim)                  (b. 1960/63)
Jun 2011 -                Ayman Muhammad al-Zawahiri              (b. 1951)

Locations:                Afghanistan, Pakistan, worldwide cells in several countries.
Strength:                 Several hundred to several thousand members.



Qibla and People Against Gangsterism and Drugs (PAGAD)

[PAGAD logo]

1980's                     Qibla (Muslims Against Global Oppression [MAGO]; Muslims Against
                             Illegitimate Leaders [MAIL]) founded as a radical Islamic group
                             seeking to establish an Islamic state in South Africa.
Dec 1996                   PAGAD began as a community anti-crime group fighting drug lords in
                             Cape Town's Cape Flats section. PAGAD now shares Qibla's anti-
                             Western stance as well as some members and leadership.
25 Aug 1998                Qibla and PAGAD may have masterminded the bombing of the Cape 
                             Town Planet Hollywood restaurant, 1 person killed. 
Sep 2000                   Magistrate Pieter Theron, who was presiding in a case involving
                             PAGAD members, was murdered in a drive-by shooting.
Nov 2002                   Bombing of the Bishop Lavis offices of the Serious Crimes Unit in
                             the Western Cape.

Leader of Qibla
1980's - ....              Achmad Cassiem 
Leader of PAGAD
1996 - 2002                Abdus Salaam Ebrahim

Locations:                 South Africa
Strength:                  Qibla: 250 members, PAGAD: at least 50 gunmen


Real IRA (RIRA, True IRA)

[Ireland Flag]

Feb/Mar 1998                Real IRA (RIRA) (a.k.a. True IRA) formed as the clandestine 
                              armed wing of the 32-County Sovereignty Movement, a
                              "political pressure group" opposed to Sinn Fein's adoption of
                              the Mitchell principles of democracy and nonviolence 1999 
                              additions to the Irish Constitution, which lay claim to
                              Northern Ireland. Aimed at removing British forces from Northern
                              Ireland and unifying Ireland.
23 Feb 1998                 Car bomb exploded in center of Portadown, County Armagh.
10 Mar 1998                 Mortar bomb attack on RUC station in Armagh, County Armagh.
24 Jun 1998                 Car bomb exploded in Newtownhamilton, County Armagh.
22 Jul 1998                 Mortar bomb attack on RUC station in Newry, County Armagh.
28 Jul 1998                 Incendiary bombs were found in stores in Portadown, County Armagh.
 2 Aug 1998                 Car bomb exploded in center of Banbridge, County Down. The bomb 
                              resulted in 33 civilians being seriously injured.
15 Aug 1998                 Car bomb in Omagh, Northern Ireland; kills 29 and injured 320.    7 Mar 2009                 Gunmen ambush and kill 2 British soldiers Cengiz "Patrick" Azimkar
                              and Mark Quinsey and injure 2 more and 2 civilians at Massereene                               Barracks in County Antrim
, Northern Ireland.

Leaders
Feb/Mar 1998 - 15 Aug 1998  Michael "Mickey" McKevitt               (b. 1949)
                              (imprisoned from 2003)
1998 -                      ....

Locations:                  Northern Ireland, Irish Republic, Great Britain
Strength:                   Fewer than 50 hard-core activists.



Red Army Faction (RAF) (Rote Armee Faktion, Baader-Meinhof Gang)

[Rote Armee Faktion
                    (Red Army Faction)]

1968                       Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion)(RAF) was born out of
                             extra-parliamentarian protest movement against Vietnam war.
                             It emerged from the "Baader-Meinhof Gang", founded by Andreas
                             Baader and Ulrike Meinhof (f). Marxist-Maoist ideology and 
                             terrorist activities aimed at paralyzing and toppling the 
                             democratic order in West Germany.
14 May 1970                First public appearance: freeing of A. Baader by force.
1972                       Leading members imprisoned.
24 Apr 1975                Occupation of West German Embassy in Stockholm.  It is blown 
                             up as police prepare to attack, the RAF members surrender.
21 Dec 1975                OPEC headquarters in Vienna is seized by Palestinian and RAF
                            terrorists led by Carlos "the Jackal"
 7 Apr 1977                Federal Attorney General Siegfried Buback (b. 1920 - d. 1977)
                             killed.
 5 Sep 1977                Kidnapping of Hanns-Martin Schleyer (b. 1915 - d. 1977), Pres. of 
                             the Fed. Assoc. of German employer union.
13 Oct 1977 - 18 Oct 1977  A Lufthansa plane 'kidnapped' by Palestinians (intended to be used
                             for exchange with the imprisoned leaders), freed by German 
                             special police forces (GSG 9) in Mogadishu, Somalia.
30 Nov 1989                Deutsche Bank CEO, Alfred Herrhausen, killed by RAF car bomb.
 1 Apr 1991                Claims responsibility for murder of Detlev Rohwedder, head of 
                             the Treuhandanstalt (agency charged with privatizing the state 
                             holdings of the former East Germany), in his house in Düsseldorf.
1991                       RAF attacked the US Embassy in Bonn, firing assault rifles at
                             the building.
Apr 1998                   RAF announced that it was disbanding.

Leaders
1968 - 18 Oct 1977         Andreas Baader                    (b. 1943 - d. 1977)
                           + Ulrike Meinhof (f)              (b. 1943 - d. 1976)
                            (imprisoned from 1972)
18 Oct 1977 - Apr 1998     ....

Locations:                 West Germany, East Germany
Strength:                  command level: 122 core members, supported by militants and about
                             250 sympathizers and (logistically) by the GDR ministry of 
                             state security.


Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse)

[Red Brigades (Brigate
                    Rosse)

Nov 1970                   Marxist-Leninist group formed  out of the student movements whose 
                             aim is to separate Italy from the Western Alliance. 
10 Mar 1978                Judge Rosano Berardi is murdered.
16 Mar 1978                Kidnaps and killed former Prime Minister Aldo Moro.
17 Dec 1981                Kidnaps General James Dozier, an American who held a position 
                             with NATO in Italy, later freed in a police raid.
1984                       Red Brigade split into two separate organizations: the Communist 
                             Combatant Party (Red Brigades-PCC) and the Union of Combatant
                             Communists (Red Brigades-UCC). 
15 Feb 1984                Kills Leamon Hunt, U.S. Chief of Sinai multinational force.
Apr 1984                   Four imprisoned leaders of the organization, Curcio, Moretti, 
                             Ianelli and Bertolucci, published an "open letter" in which they
                             rejected the armed struggle as pointless: "The international 
                             conditions that made this struggle possible no longer exist."
Feb 1986                   Red Brigades-PCC kills the ex-mayor of Florence, and tried to 
                             kill Prime Minister's advisor Bettino Craxi. 
Mar 1987                   Red Brigades-UCC kills General Licio Giorgieri in Rome. 
16 Apr 1988                Red Brigades-PCC kills Senator Robert Ruffilli, an advisor of
                             Italian Prime Minister Ciriaco de Mita.
20 May 1999                Red Brigades-PCC murders Massimo D'Antona, a senior adviser 
                             to to the cabinet of Prime Minister Massimo D'Alema.
20 Mar 2002                Red Brigades-PCC assassinates Marco Biagi, an economic advisor to 
                             Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi.

Leader
Nov 1970 - 1984            Renato Curcio                   (b. 1941)
                             (under arrest from Jan 1976)

Location:                  Italy
Strength:                  Currently thought to have no more than 50 members.



Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia -People's Army (FARC-EP)

[Revolutionary Armed
                    Forces of Colombia -People's Army (FARC-EP)

1964                       Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo 
                             (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People's Army)(FARC-EP)
                             established as the military wing of the Colombian Communist
                             Party to replace the current government with a Marxist regime.
Mar 1999                   Executed three Indian rights activists in Venezuela.
 4 Nov 2011                Colombian military operation
in Cauca state kills FARC leader Cano.

Commandants
1964 - 10 Aug 1990         Luis Morantes "Jacobo Arenas"              (d. 1990)
1990 - 26 Mar 2008         Manuel Marulanda Vélez "Tirofijo"          (b. 1928 - d. 2008)
                             (Pedro Antonio Marín)
26 Mar 2008 -  4 Nov 2011 
Alfonso Cano (Guillermo León Sáenz)        (b. 1948 - d. 2011)
Nov 2011 -                 Timoleón Jiménez or "Timochenko"           (b. 1959)
                             (Rodrigo Londoño Echeverri)

Location:                  Colombia
Strength:                  Approximately 8,000 to 18,000 armed combatants


Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17 November)

[Revolutionary
                    Organization 17 November (17 November)

1973                       Formed as a radical leftist group, 17 November is described as
                             anti-Greek establishment, anti-United States, anti-Turkey,
                             anti-NATO, and committed to the ouster of U.S. bases,
                             removal of Turkish military presence from Cyprus, and severing
                             of Greece's ties to NATO and the European Union (EU).
Dec 1975                   Assassinates U.S. embassy employee (CIA's Athens station 
                             chief) Richard Welch.
15 Nov 1983                Assassinates U.S. Navy Captain George Tsantes.
28 Jun 1988                Assassinates U.S. defense attache William Nordeen.
12 Mar 1991                U.S. Air Force Sergeant Ronald O. Strong killed by a car bomb.
 7 Oct 1991                Cetin Gorgu, a Turkish press attaché, shot in his car.
 4 Jul 1994                Omer Haluk Sipahioglu, a Turkish embassy official shot on Athens.
28 May 1997                Assassinates Anglo-Hellenic shipping tycoon Constantinos Peratikos.
 8 Jun 2000                Claims responsibility for the murder of British Defense
                             Attaché Stephen Saunders in Athens.
17 Jul 2002                Group leader Alexandros Giotopoulos arrested on island of Lipsi.
 5 Sep 2002                Dimitris Koufodinas -identified as group's chief of operations- 
                             surrendered to the authorities. 

Leader
1973 - 17 Jun 2002         Alexandros Giotopoulos              (b. 1944)

Location:                  Greece
Strength:                  Unknown, but presumed to be small.


Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front (DHKP-C) (Dev Sol)

[Revolutionary People's
                    Liberation Party-Front (DHKP-C) (Dev Sol)

1978                       Devrimci Halk Kurtuluş Partisi/Cephesi (Revolutionary Left "Dev
                             Sol"), formed as
a splinter group of Devrimci Yol (Dev Yol) which
                             was itself
a splinter group of the Turkish People's Liberation
                             Party-Front
(THKP-C). 
13 Aug 1991                Murder of Andrew Blake, head of U.K. Commercial Union in Istanbul.
1992                       Launched rockets at U.S. consulate in Istanbul.
early 1990's               Infighting within Dev Sol resulted in the emergence of two
                             factions. Dursun Karatas, group's DHKP-C from 1994. 
                             Bedri Yagan, a founding member of Dev Sol, broke from the 
                             Karatas faction and created a new faction, THKP-C (not to be
                             confused with the original THKP-C).
1993                       Renamed Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front
                             (Devrimci Halk Kurtulus Partisi-Cephesi)(DHKP-C). 

Leaders
- from 1993 of DHKP-C
1978 - 11 Apr 2008         Dursun Karatas                 (b. 1952 - d. 2008)
- of THKP-C
1994 -                     Bedri Yagan

Location:                  Turkey
Strength:                  Probably several dozen operatives, with a large support network



Revolutionary People's Struggle (ELA)
 

1971                       Epanastatikos Laikos Agonas (ELA)(Revolutionary Popular Struggle) 
                             founded as an extreme leftist group, the ELA is self-described
                             as revolutionary, anti-capitalist, and anti-imperialist. 
                             Strongly anti-U.S., and seeks the removal of U.S. military
                             forces from Greece.
1980's                     Received weapons and other assistance from international 
                             terrorist Carlos "the Jackal"
Jan 1995                   Has not claimed any actions from this period onward.

Leader
1971 -       ;             ....

Location:                  Greece
Strength:                  Unknown



Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone (RUF)

[Revolutionary United
                    Front (RUF) flag, 1991-2002]

23 Mar 1991                Revolutionary United Front (RUF) began actions to topple the 
                             government of Sierra Leone and retain control of the
                             lucrative diamond producing regions of the country.
18 Jan 1995                Five Europeans and at least three Sierra Leoneans were kidnapped.

25 Jan 1995                RUF raided a mission near the Guinea border, taking 100 hostages.
                             Seven nuns - six Italians and one Brazilian - were among 
                             the captives.
Mar 1995 - Apr 1995        RUF forces attack the suburbs of the capital, Freetown.
20 Nov 1996                Abidjan Accord between Sierra Leone government and RUF.
May 1997
- Jun 1997        RUF forces sack the capital, Freetown.
 6 Jan 1999 - Jan 1999
    RUF forces again sack the capital, Freetown, large parts of the
                             city burned and 6,000 were killed and 3,000 children abducted
                             as RUF retreated.

 7 Jul 1999                Lome Accord Foday Sankoh offered chairmanship of the Commission
                             for the Management of Strategic Resources, National
                             Reconstruction, and Development, which was to have the status
                             of Vice President, in that he was to be only answerable to
                             the president.
17 May 2000                Sankoh arrested after RUF forces kill protesters near his home.
Dec 2001                   RUF
disarmament and demobilization begins.
18 Jan 2002                11-year civil conflict officially ended when all parties to the
                             conflict issued a Declaration of the End of the War. The
                             government since asserted control over the whole country, backed
                             by a large U.N. peacekeeping force. RUF insurgents, who fought
                             completed disarmament and demobilization. An estimated 50,000
                             people were killed during the war, and over 500,000 people were
                             displaced in neighboring countries.

Commanders
23 Mar 1991 - 20 Aug 2000  Foday Saybana Sankoh                 (b. 1937 - d. 2003) 
                             (imprisoned in Nigeria [from 25 Jul 1998 Sierra Leone]
                             2 Mar 1997 - 19 Apr 1999,
imprisoned again from 17 May 2000)
Mar 1997 - Apr 1999        Sam Bockarie (acting for Sankoh)     (b. 1964 - d. 2003)
20 Aug 2000 - 18 Jan 2002  
Issa Hassan Sesay (interim)          (b. 1970) 

Locations:                 Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea. 
Strength:                  Once estimated at several thousand supporters and sympathizers,
                             the group has dwindled to several hundred.


Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) 

[Salafist logo]

1998                       Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (Groupe Salafiste
                             pour la Prédication et le Combat, also 'Group for Call and 
                             Combat') founded.
12 Nov 2002                Ambush of a group of Algerian soldiers. 9 dead, 12 wounded.
Feb 2003                   32 European tourists are kidnapped. 1 dead, 17 hostages rescued by
                             Algerian troops on 13 May 2003, and 14 released in Aug 2003.
12 Feb 2004                Near Tighremt, Algeria, Islamic extremists ambushed a police
                             patrol, killing 7 police officers and wounding three others.

Oct 2003                   Announced alignment with al-Qaeda and Taliban leader Mullah Omar.
 7 Apr 2005                In Tablat, Blida Province, Algeria, armed assailants fired on five
                             vehicles at a fake road block, killing 13 civilians, wounding
                             one other.
Sep 2006                   Announces it has joined Al-Qaeda.

15 Oct 2006                In Sidi Medjahed, Ain Defla, Algeria, assailants attacked and
                             killed eight private security guards
.
24 Jan 2007                Officially renamed "Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb."


Spiritual Leader
1998 - 17 Jan 2006         Ahmed Abou al-Baraa (Ahmed Zarabib)   (b. 19.. - d. 2006)

Leaders
1998 - af.2001             Hassan Hattab                         (b. 1967)
by 2003 - 20 Jun 2004      Nabil Sahraoui                        (b. 19.. - d. 2004)
2004 -                     Abou Mossab Abdelouadoud              (b. 1970) 
                             "Abdel Malik Daroqedel"
 

Locations:                 Algeria, Chad, Libya, Mauritania, Mali, Morocco, Niger
Strength:                  300 est.



Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path)

[Sendero Luminoso (Shining
                    Path) flag]

1960's                     Sendero Luminoso ("Shining Path") founded.
since 1980                 Became one of the most ruthless terrorist groups in the Western
                             Hemisphere — approximately 30,000 persons have died since SL
                             took up arms in 1980.
 4 Sep 1989                Abducted and interrogated two Newsweek reporters in Ramal de 
                             Aspusana, Peru and then released them after three days.
24 Nov 1989                An American reporter was kidnapped in Huallga, Peru and turned 
                             over to drug traffickers, presumably in exchange for money.
                             His body was later found, together with a note signed by SL.
13 Jan 1990                Sendero Luminoso terrorists singled out and shot two French 
                             tourists aboard a bus traveling in the Apurimac Department.
                             Peruvian passengers were forced to pay the terrorists money
                             but were unharmed.
10 Dec 1990                Terrorists exploded a car bomb near the US Embassy in Lima. No 
                             injuries or damage resulted.
17 May 1991                SL killed the Canadian director of the humanitarian organization 
                             world mission and seriously injured his Colombian assistant 
                             in a Lima suburb.
22 May 1991                An Australian Nun and 4 Peruvian government officials were 
                             executed after a "people's trial" in a rural village.
26 Jun 1991                A Soviet textile technician was ambushed and killed by four
                             SL members in Lima.
12 Jul 1991                Three Japanese agronomists were assassinated by 10 SL members at
                             a Japanese funded rural research center in Peru.
 9 Aug 1991                Two polish priests were shot and killed by SL members in a remote 
                             rural area. A local mayor was also murdered and an Italian nun
                             was held for several hours.
25 Aug 1991                An Italian priest was killed in an ambush on his car by SL members.
16 Jul 1992                Detonated a powerful bomb on Tarata Street in the upscale district
                             of Miraflores in Lima, killing more than 20 people.
 9 Oct 1992                Five Sendero Luminoso terrorists assassinated an Italian
                             Lay Missionary in Jangas.
28 Dec 1992                SL guerrillas detonated car bombs at the Japanese and Chinese 
                             Embassies in Lima, causing injuries and damaging more than 
                             60 homes and buildings. At least 12 people were injured by the 
                             car bomb at the Japanese embassy, all bystanders or neighbors.
19 May 1993                Terrorists detonated a car bomb in front of the Chilean Embassy
                             in Lima at the end of a strike called by the SL terrorist group. 
                             The explosion damaged the embassy and nearby houses but did not
                             result in any casualties.
 7 Jul 1993                Police discovered the bodies of 2 European tourists in a 
                            remote area of Ayacucho. The two had been traveling together
                            in a region contested by Sendero Luminoso terrorists.
27 Jul 1993                After first spraying the building with automatic weapons,
                             terrorists exploded a van bomb outside the US Embassy in Lima. 
                             One Embassy guard was injured. The explosion caused extensive
                             damage to the embassy's facade and perimeter fence. The nearby 
                             Spanish embassy and an US-owned hotel, were also damaged. Two 
                             hotel employees and a hotel guest were injured.
11 Jun 1995                A suspected SL bomb exploded in front of the Peruvian-
                             Japanese cultural center in Lima, no casualties.
24 May 1995                Presumed members of Sendero Luminoso detonated a 50-KG car bomb
                             in front of the Maria Angola Hotel in a suburb of Lima,
                             killing 3 hotel employees and a passerby. About 30 others
                             were injured.
16 May 1996                SL terrorists detonated a car bomb, injuring at least 4 persons 
                             and destroying a portion of the joint Shell-Mobil offices 
                             and warehouse in Lima. 
15 Aug 1997                60 Sendero Luminoso (SL) guerrillas kidnapped 30 oil workers in
                             Junin Department. The workers are employed by a firm that is
                             contracted by a French transnational oil company. On 17 Aug
                             the SL rebels released the oil workers unharmed in exchange for
                             a ransom of food, medicines, clothing and batteries.
21 Mar 2002                A car bomb exploded outside the U.S. Embassy in Peru killing 
                             10 people and injuring more than 30. The blast occurred at about
                             10:45 p.m. outside a Banco de Credito bank in an area crowded 
                             with shops and restaurants.
 9 Jun 2003                Shining Path group attacked a camp in Ayacucho, and took 68
                             employees of the Argentinian company Techint and three police
                             guards as hostages. Two days later, after a rapid military
                             response, the terrorists abandoned the hostages.
22 Dec 2005                Shining Path ambush a police patrol in Huánuco region, killing 8.

Apr 2009                   Shining Path ambushed and killed 13 government soldiers in Ayacucho

Leaders
1960's - 12 Sep 1992       Abimael Guzmán Reynoso                   (b. 1934)
Sep 1992 - 14 Jul 1999     Óscar Ramírez Durand "Feliciano"         (b. 1953?)
1999 - Apr 2000            José Arcela Chiroque "Ormeño"
.... -                     ....

Location:                  Peru
Strength:                  100-200 armed militants. 


Stern Gang (Lehi, Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel)

[Lehi]

1920                    Lohamei Herut Israel, "Lehi" (Fighters for the Freedom of Israel) 
                          an armed underground faction in pre-state Israel that that had as
                          its goal the eviction of the British from Palestine to allow 
                          unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of a Jewish
                          state. Split from Irgun. The smallest by far of any of the Jewish 
                          armed groups during the mandatory era, it never attracted more than 
                          a few hundred followers, and was reviled by most of its
                          contemporaries.
 2 Nov 1944             Assassinated Lord Moyne, a British government representative, 
                          in Cairo, Egypt.
 9 Apr 1948             Lehi and Irgun attacked Deir Yassin ("Deir Yassin massacre"),
                          approximately 107 and 120 Palestinian Arab civilians were killed. 
17 Sep 1948             Assassinated the United Nations Mediator, Count Folke Bernadotte.
 

Commanders
1920 - 12 Feb 1942      Abraham Stern (Avraham Shtern) "Yair"  (b. 1907 - d. 1942)
194. - 1948             Triumvirate 
                        - Israel Eldad                         (b. 1910 – d. 1996) 
                        - Natan Yellin-Mor
                        - Yitzhak Shamir "Michael"             (b. 1915) 

Location:               Palestine, Egypt.
Strength:               a few hundred followers.


Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA)

[flag of Symbionese
                    Liberation Army (SLA) ]

Aug 1973                   Symbionese Liberation Army founded in California.
 6 Nov 1973                SLA murdered Oakland, California superintendent of schools Dr.
                             Marcus Foster and badly wounded his deputy Robert Blackburn.
 4 Feb 1974                SLA kidnaps 19-year-old publishing heiress Patty Hearst from her 
                             Berkeley, California apartment.
17 May 1974                Los Angeles Police department surrounds a house of armed SLA
                             members. After the fire the bodies of Nancy Ling Perry (Fahiza),
                             Angela Atwood ("General Gelina"), Willie Wolfe (who was reported
                             to be Patricia Hearst's lover and who bore the SLA alias "Cujo"),
                             Donald DeFreeze ("Cinque"), Patricia Soltysik ("Mizmoon",
                             "Zoya"), and Camilla Hall ("Gabi") were found.
21 Apr 1975                The remaining members of the SLA robbed the Crocker National Bank
                             in Carmichael, California and killed Myrna Opsahl, a customer, 
                             in the process.

Leaders
Aug 1973 - 17 May 1974     Donald David DeFreeze                   (b. 1943 - d. 1974)
                            (General Field Marshal Cinque Mtume)
May 1974 - 1975            William Harris "Teko"                   (b. 1946?)

Location:                  United States
Strength:                  ....


Terra Lliure (Free Land)

[Terra
                        Lliure (Catalonia) Spain)]
[Terra
                        Lliure (Catalonia) Spain)]

1970's                     Terra Lliure ("Free Land") established with goal of creating an
                             independent Marxist state in the Spanish provinces of Catalonia 
                             and Valencia.
12 May 1987                General Electric Company in Barcelona bombed.
14 Oct 1987                Bombing of U.S. consulate in Barcelona.
17 Mar 1988                British consulate in Barcelona attacked.
 2 Mar 1989                Failed bombing of French tourism office in Barcelona,
                             8 are injured.
Jul 1991                   Announces end of terror campaigns.
Sep 1995                   Group announced its definitive disbanding
.
 

Leaders
1970's - 1995              ....

Locations:                 Spain
Strength:                  Unknown



Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)

Tupac Amaru Revolutionary
                    Movement (MRTA) flag]

1984                       Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)(Movimiento
                             Revolucionario Túpac Amaru) established as Marxist group 
                             to rid Peru of all imperialist elements (primarily U.S.
                             and Japanese influence). Previously conducted bombings, 
                             kidnappings, ambushes, and assassinations, but recent activity 
                             has fallen drastically.
1986/87                    Begins armed struggle against Peruvian government.
Feb 1987                   Occupies 7 radio stations in Lima.
 9 Jan 1990                Assassinates former Defense Minister Manuel E. Lopez Albujar.
17 Dec 1996 - 22 Apr 1997  Occupies the Japanese ambassadors residence in Lima, 
                             taking guests 72 hostage.

Leaders
1984 - 22 Apr 1997         Néstor Cerpa Cartolini                (b. 1953 - d. 1997)
                             "Comandante Evaristo" 
1984 - Jun 1992            Victor Polay Campos 
                             "Comandante Rolando"
                             (imporisioned Feb 1989-Jul 1990, from Jun  1992)

Locations:                 Peru, Bolivia, throughout Latin America 
Strength:                  No more than 100.



Tupamaros (MLN) (Movimiento de Liberación Nacional, National Liberation Army)

[Flag of the Tupamaros]

1962                       Tupamaros (MLN)(Movimiento de Liberación Nacional or 
                             National Liberation Army) founded to lead a Marxist-Leninist 
                             state in Uruguay.
1963                       Raid on a Swiss rifle club.
10 Sep 1964                Bombing of home of the Brazilian ambassador.
31 Jul 1970                Two diplomats are kidnapped in Montevideo: Dan Mitrone
                             of USAID is killed 10 Aug 1970, Aloysio Gomide of Brazil
                             is released 21 Feb 1971 after his family paid a ransom.
 8 Jan 1971                British Ambassador Geoffrey Jackson is kidnapped. He is
                             released 9 Sep 1971 after 106 Tupamaros escape from prison.
18 May 1972                Colonel Artigas Alvarez, chief of Uruguay civil defense forces,
                             is assassinated.
1973                       Movement crushed by the military.
 4 Sep 1985                Existing members renounce armed struggle and state they are
                             joining Frente Amplio coalition and Movimiento 26 de Marzo.
 

Leader
1962 -  4 Sep 1985         Raúl Sendic Antonaccio                  (b. 1926 - d. 1989)

Location:                  Uruguay, Argentina, Cuba
Strength:                  in 1972 around 6,000.


al-Ummah

1992                       Radical Indian Muslim group, goals unknown.
1998                       Believed responsible for the Coimbatore
                             bombings in Southern India.

Leader
1992 -       ;             ....

Location:                  India
Strength:                  Unknown



United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC-Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia)

[United Self-Defense
                    Forces of Colombia (AUC]

Apr 1997                   United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)(Autodefensas
                             Unidas de Colombia) an umbrella organization formed to 
                             consolidate most local and regional paramilitary groups
                             each with the mission to protect economic interests and
                             combat insurgents locally.
 2 Feb 2006                As this date about 17,000 of the AUC's 20,000 fighters have
                             surrendered their weapons since 2003.

Supreme Leaders
Apr 1997 - 16 Apr 2004     Carlos Castaño Gil                     (b. 1965 - d. 2004)
2004 - 2006?               Vicente Castaño                        (b. 1957)
 

Location:                  Colombia
Strength:                  Estimated 20,000 paramilitary fighters, including former military 
                             and insurgent personnel.


Weathermen (Weather Underground Organization)

[Weather Underground
                    Organization (WUO)]

1969                       The Weathermen (later, Weather Underground Organization) a U.S. 
                             Radical Left organization consisting of splintered off members
                             and leaders of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
                             formed.  The group referred to itself as a "revolutionary 
                             organization of communist women and men." Their stated purpose
                             was to carry out a series of militant actions to achieve the 
                             revolutionary overthrow of the Government of the United States,
                             and of capitalism as a whole.
Jun 1969                   The "Action Faction" of the SDS releases a detailed statement of
                             their political ideology in the official SDS newspaper "New Left
                             Notes." This essay concluded with the quotation "You Don't Need 
                             A Weatherman To Know Which Way The Wind Blows" which gave rise
                             to its adherents being called "Weathermen."
18-22 Jun 1969             SDS National Convention, held in Chicago, Illinois, sees the
                             organization collapse as a student group and the Weathermen 
                             seizing control of the SDS National Office. 
Jul 1969                   Bernardine Dohrn, Eleanor Raskin, Dianne Donghi, Peter Clapp, 
                             David Millstone and Diana Oughton, all representing the 
                             Weathermen, travel to Cuba where they meet with representatives
                             of the North Vietnamese and Cuban governments.
 7 Oct 1969                Haymarket Police Statue is bombed in Chicago, Illinois.
 8-11 Oct 1969             "Days of Rage" riots occur in Chicago in which 287 Weatherman
                             members from throughout the country were arrested and a large 
                             amount of property damage was done.
 6 Dec 1969                Several Chicago Police cars parked in a Precinct parking lot at 
                             3600 North Halsted Street, Chicago, are bombed.
27-31 Dec 1969             The Weathermen hold a "War Council" meeting in Flint, Michigan,
                             where they finalize their plans to submerge into an underground 
                             status from which they plan to commit strategic acts of sabotage
                             against the government. Thereafter they are called the 
                             "Weather Underground Organization" (WUO).
Feb 1970                   WUO closes the SDS National Office in Chicago, concluding the 
                             major campus based organization of the 1960's.
13 Feb 1970                Several Police vehicles of the Berkeley, California, Police 
                             Department are bombed in the police parking lot.
16 Feb 1970                Bomb is detonated at the Golden Gate Park branch of the San
                             Francisco Police Department, killing one officer and injuring 
                             a number of other policemen. 
 6 Mar 1970                A group blows themselves up when their bomb factory located 
                             in New York's Greenwich Village accidentally explodes. WUO 
                             members Ted Gold, Diana Oughton (f), and Terry Robbins die in
                             this accident. The Bomb was intended to be planted at a 
                             Non-commissioned officer's dance at Fort Dix, New Jersey. 
30 Mar 1970                Chicago Police discover WUO bomb factory on Chicago's north side. 
10 May 1970                National Guard Association building in Washington, D.C. was bombed
                             to protest the National Guard killings of four students at 
                             Kent State in Ohio.
21 May 1970                WUO under Bernardine Dohrn's name releases its "Declaration of
                             a State of War" communiqué.
 9 Jun 1970                New York City Police Headquarters is bombed in response to what
                             Weatherman call "police repression."
27 Jul 1970                The Presidio Army Base in San Francisco is bombed to mark the 
                             11th anniversary of the Cuban Revolution.
12 Sep 1970                The WUO helps Dr. Timothy Leary, LSD user break out and escape 
                             from the California Men's Colony prison.
 8 Oct 1970                Bombing of Marin County Courthouse in retaliation for the killing 
                             of Jonathan Jackson, William Christmas, and James McClain. 
10 Oct 1970                Queens Courthouse is bombed to express support for the New York 
                             prison riots. 
14 Oct 1970                Harvard Center for International Affairs is bombed to protest
                             the war in Vietnam. 
 1 Mar 1971                U.S. Capitol is bombed to protest the invasion of Laos. 
Apr 1971                   FBI agents discover an abandoned WUO bomb factory in San Francisco.
29 Aug 1971                Bombing of the Office of California Prisons allegedly in 
                             retaliation for the killing of George Jackson. 
17 Sep 1971                New York Department of Corrections in Albany New York is bombed 
                             to protest the killing of 29 inmates at Attica State Prison.
15 Oct 1971                Bombing of William Bunny's office in the MIT research center.
19 May 1972                Bombing of The Pentagon in retaliation for the new U.S. bombing
                             raid in Hanoi. 
18 May 1973                Bombing of the 103rd Police Precinct in New York in response to 
                             killing of 10-year-old black youth Clifford Glover by police.
19 Sep 1973                WUO member Howard Norton Machtinger is arrested by the FBI in New
                             York. Released on bond, Machtinger again submerges into 
                             the underground.
28 Sep 1973                ITT headquarters in New York and Rome, Italy are bombed in 
                             response to ITT's alleged role in the Chilean coup earlier 
                             that month. 
 6 Mar 1974                Bombing of the Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare offices in
                             San Francisco to protest alleged sterilization of poor women. 
31 May 1974                Office of the California Attorney General is bombed in response 
                             to the killing of 6 members of the Symbionese Liberation Army.
17 Jun 1974                Gulf Oil's Pittsburgh headquarters is bombed to protest its
                             actions in Angola, Vietnam, and elsewhere.
Jul 1974                   WUO releases its book "Prairie Fire" in which they indicate
                             the need for a unified Communist Party. They encourage the 
                             creation of study groups to discuss their ideology, but continue
                             to stress the need for violent acts. The book also admits WUO 
                             responsibility of several actions from previous years. The 
                             Prairie Fire Organizing Committee (PFOC) arises from the 
                             teachings in the book, organized by many former WUO members.
11 Sep 1974                Bombing of Anaconda Corporation (part of the Rockefeller
                             Corporation) in retribution for Anaconda’s alleged involvement
                             in the Chilean coup the previous year.
28 Jan 1975                Bombing of The State Department in response to escalation in
                             Vietnam.
Mar 1975                   WUO releases its first edition of a new magazine entitled 
                             "Osawatomie."
16 Jun 1975                They bomb a Banco de Ponce (a Puerto Rican bank) in New York in 
                             solidarity with striking Puerto Rican cement workers.
11-13 Jul 1975             The PFOC holds its first national convention during which time they
                             go through the formality of creating a new organization.
Sep 1975                   Bombing of the Kennecott Corporation in retribution for 
                             alleged involvement in the Chilean coup two years prior.
1977                       The group began dissolving, many members moved on to other
                             armed revolutionary groups and were subsequently arrested and
                             held for long periods. Very few served prison sentences for 
                             their time in the Weather Underground.

Widely-known members
1969 - 1977                - Kathy Boudin (f)                   (b. 1943)
                           - Mark Rudd                          (b. 1947)
                           - Terry Robbins (to 6 Mar 1970)      (d. 1970)
                           - Ted Gold (to 6 Mar 1970)           (b. 1947 - d. 1970)
                           - Naomi Jaffe (f)
                           - Cathy Wilkerson (f)
                           - Jeff Jones
                           - David Gilbert                      (b. 1944)
                           - Susan Stern (f)
                           - Bob Tomashevsky 
                           - Sam Karp 
                           - Russ Neufeld 
                           - Joe Kelly
                           - Bernardine Dohrn (f)
                           - Bill Ayers                         (b. 1944)

Locations:                 United States
Strength:                  ....


Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN)

[Zapatista National
                    Liberation Army [EZLN] flag]

17 Nov 1983                Zapatista National Liberation Army (Ejército Zapatista de Liberción
                             Nacional)(EZLN) founded.
 1 Jan 1991                Zapatistas go public with the initial goal of overthrowing the
                             Mexican government. Short armed clashes in Chiapas end two weeks 
                             after the uprising and there have been no full-scale
                             confrontations since. 

Subcommandante
 1 Jan 1994 -              Marcos (Delegado Zero)
                            (Rafael Sebastián Guillén Vicente)

Locations:                 Chiapas, Mexico
Strength:                  ....






© Ben Cahoon