World Statesmen.org HOME > return to South Africa >>

 






 
 


Former Black Homelands (Bantustans)

Former Homelands  Bophuthatswana - Ciskei - Gazankulu - KaNgwane - KwaNdebele - KwaZulu - Lebowa - Qwaqwa - Transkei - Venda

Note
: Ten self-governing territories for different black ethnic groups were established as part of the policy of apartheid. Four of which were granted "independence" by South Africa (recognized only by South Africa and each other). These former South African Homelands or bantustans ceased to exist 27 Apr 1994 and were re-incorporated into South Africa, and all were absorbed into the new provinces.


Bophuthatswana
 
[Bophutatswana
                          (South African homeland) flag 1972-1973]
           19 Apr 1972 - 19 Apr 1973
 
[Bophutatswana
                          (South African homeland) flag 1973-1994]
          19 Apr 1973 - 27 Apr 1994
 
Map of Bophuthatswana
Hear National Anthem
"Lefatshe leno la bo-rrarona"
(This Land of Our Forefathers)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1977
Constitution
(6 Dec 1977)
Capital: Mmabatho
Currency: South African
Rand (ZAR)
National Holiday: 6 Dec (1977)
Independence Day
Population: 2,489,347 (1992)
GDP: $420 million R (1984)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Tswana, North Sotho, Ndebele
Total Defense Force: about 4,000 (1993)
Religions: N/A
International Organizations/Treaties:  CMA, DBSA, ECOSA, SACU, SECOSAF

21 Apr 1961                Tswana Territorial Authority established.
Jun 1968                   Tswanaland
 1 Apr 1971                Bophuthatswana
 1 Jun 1972                Self-government granted.
 6 Dec 1977                Declared independent by South Africa (Republic of Bophuthatswana)
                            (recognized only by South Africa and the other homelands). 
13 Mar 1994 - 27 Apr 1994  Occupied by South Africa.
27 Apr 1994                Re-integrated into South Africa.

Chief councillor
Dec 1968 -  1 Jun 1972     Lawrence Lucas Manyane Mangope     (b. 1923)
Chief minister
 1 Jun 1972 -  6 Dec 1977  Lawrence Lucas Manyane Mangope     (s.a.)              BNP;1974 BDP
President

 6 Dec 1977 - 10 Feb 1988  Lawrence Lucas Manyane Mangope     (s.a.)              BDP
                             (1st time)
10 Feb 1988               
Rocky Malebana-Metsing             (b. 1949)           PPP
10 Feb 1988 - 13 Mar 1994  Lawrence Lucas Manyane Mangope     (s.a.)              BDP;1991 CDP
                            
(2nd time)
Administrators

13 Mar 1994 - 26 Apr 1994  Tjaart van der Walt                (b. 1934)
                           + Tebogo Job Mokgoro               (b. 1948)

Commissioners-general of Tswana (from 1971, Bophuthatswana)
 1 Jul 1960 - 1973         Ignatius Stefanus Kloppers         (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
Jul 1973 - Dec 1977        Gerhardus "Gerrie" Renier Wessels  (b. 1912 - d. 1998)

Party abbreviations: CDP = Christian Democratic Party (former BDP, 1991-1994); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: BDP = Bophuthatswana Democratic Party (former BNP, 1974-1991); BNP = Bophuthatswana National Party (1972-1974, later BDP); PPP = Progressive People's Party (1987-Feb 1988)



Ciskei
 
[Ciskei
                          unofficial flag 1972-1974]
    1 Aug 1972 - 15 Mar 1974 (unofficial)
 
 
[Ciskei (South
                          African homeland) flag as used 1974-1994]
           15 Mar 1974 - 27 Apr 1994
           (officially from 22 Jun 1977)
 
[Ciskei (South
                          African homeland) flag design according to
                          official specifications]
            According to Official Design
 
 
Map of Ciskei
Hear National Anthem
"Nkosi Sikelel'i Afrika"
(God, Bless Africa)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 4 Dec 1981
Constitution
(4 Dec 1981)
Capital: Bisho
(to 1981 Zwelitsha)
Currency: South African
Rand (ZAR)
National Holiday: 4 Dec (1981)
Independence Day
Population: 1,088,476 (1992)
GDP: $291.9 million R (1989)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Xhosa (Rarabe-Xhosa and Mfengu)
Total Defense Force: about 2,000 (1993)
Religions: N/A
International Organizations/Treaties: CMA, DBSA, ECOSA, SACU, SECOSAF

24 Mar 1961                Ciskei Territorial Authority established (to 1968 see Transkei).
14 Nov 1968                Ciskei
 1 Aug 1972                Self-government granted.
 4 Dec 1981                Declared independent by South Africa (Republic of Ciskei)
                             (recognized only by South Africa and the other homelands). 
22 Mar 1994 - 27 Apr 1994  Occupied by South Africa.
27 Apr 1994                Re-integrated into South Africa.


Chief Executive Councillor
 
1 Jan 1969 -  1 Aug 1972  Justice Thandatha Jongilizwe       (b. 1926)            CNP
                             Mabandla
Chief ministers
 1 Aug 1972 - 21 May 1973  Justice Thandatha Jongilizwe       (s.a.)               CNP
                              Mabandla
21 May 1973 - 1975         Lennox Leslie Wongama Sebe         (b. 1926 - d. 1994)  CNIP
                             (1st time)
1975                       Charles Sebe (acting)              (d. 1991)            Mil
1975 -  4 Dec 1981         Lennox Leslie Wongama Sebe         (s.a.)               CNIP
                             (2nd time)
President

 4 Dec 1981 -  4 Mar 1990  Lennox Leslie Wongama Sebe         (s.a.)               CNIP
Chairman of the Military Committee and of the Council of State
 4 Mar 1990 - 22 Mar 1994  Joshua Oupa Gqozo                  (b. 1952)            Mil;1991 ADP
Administrators
23 Mar 1994 - 26 Apr 1994  Pieter van Rensburg Goosen 
                           + Bongani Blessing Finca           (b. 1953)

   
Commissioner-general of the South African Government

 1 Sep 1976 -  4 Dec 1981  J.J. Engelbrecht

Party abbreviations: ADP = African Democratic Party (Gqozo personalist, Jul 1991-1994); CNIP = Ciskei National Independence Party (Sebe personalist, 1978-1990 only legal party, 1973-Mar 1990); CNP = Ciskei National Party (Mabandla personalist, 1968-1978); Mil = Military



Gazankulu

[Gazankulu (South African
                homeland) flag 1973-1994]
            18 Dec 1973 - 27 Apr 1994
 
Map of Gazankulu
Capital: Giyani
Hear Local Anthem
"Nkosi Sikelel'i Afrika"
(God, Bless Africa)
Population: 803,806 (1992)
GDP: $323,880,000 R (1986)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A

Ethnic groups: Shangaan-Tsonga, North Sotho,
Venda, Swazi

1969                       Tsonga National Unit
 1 Jul 1971                Machangana
 1 Feb 1973                Gazankulu (self-rule granted).
27 Apr 1994                Re-integration into South Africa.


Chief Councillor 

 1 Jul 1971 -  1 Feb 1973  Hudson William Edison Ntsanwisi    (b. 1920 - d. 1993) 
Chief ministers
 1 Feb 1973 - 25 Mar 1993  Hudson William Edison Ntsanwisi    (s.a.)               1983: XXP
25 Mar 1993 - Apr 1993     Edward Mhinga (acting)             (b. 1927)            XPP
Apr 1993 - 26 Apr 1994     Samuel Dickenson Nxumalo           (b. 1928)            XPP

Commissioners-general
 1 May 1970 - 1980         Evert Frederick Potgieter          (b. 1921 - d. 19..)
1980 - 1985                Jacobus "Kobus" Adriaan Jordaan
 1 Jun 1985 - 199.         H.O. Mönning

Party abbreviations: XPP = Ximoko Progressive Party; XXP = Ximoko Xa Rixaka (Whip of the Nation, est.1983, later XPP)



KaNgwane
[Old flag of South
                  Africa]
 31 Aug 1984 - 27 Apr 1994 No Flag Adopted
Map of KaNgwane
Capital: Nyamasane
(Louieville)
Hear Local Anthem
"Nkosi Sikelel'i Afrika"
(God, Bless Africa)
Population: 597,783 (1992)
GDP: $151,620,000 R (1986)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A

Ethnic groups: Swazi, Shangaan-Tsonga, Zulu
and North Sotho

 1 Oct 1976                Swazi Territorial Authority established.
1978                       Legislative assembly granted.
1981                       Self-rule granted.
18 Jun 1982 -  9 Dec 1982  Homeland status suspended.
31 Aug 1984                Self-rule restored.
27 Apr 1994                Re-integration into South Africa.

Chief Councillors
1976 - 1977                Johannes Mkolishi Dlamini 
 8 Oct 1977 - 18 Jun 1982  Enos John Mabuza (1st time)        (b. 1939 - d. 1997)
                            (from Apr 1981, chief executive councillor)
Administrator
18 Jun 1982 -  9 Dec 1982  N.J. Badenhorst
Chief ministers
 9 Dec 1982 -  1 Apr 1991  Enos John Mabuza (2nd time)        (s.a.)               1988: INP
                            (chief executive councillor to Aug 1984)
15 Apr 1991 - 26 Apr 1994  Mangisi Cephas Zitha               (b. 1940)

Commissioners-general of Swazi (from 1981, KaNgwane)
1978 -  1 Feb 1982         George F. Botha
Feb 1982 - Jan 1988        Theunis Nicolaas Hendrik "Punt"    (b. 1917 - d. 1988)
                             Janson
1988 - 199.                H.J. Tempel

Party abbreviations: INP = Indyandsa National Movement (est.1978); IsNP = Inzika National Movement



KwaNdebele

[KwaNdebele (South African
                homeland) flag 1982-1994]
             6 Oct 1982 - 27 Apr 1994
 
Map of KwaNdebele
Capital: KwaMhlanga
(Siyabuswa 1981-1986)
Hear Local Anthem
"Nkosi Sikelel'i Afrika"
(God, Bless Africa)
Population: 373,012 (1992)
Moutse- 130,000 (1986)
GDP: $509,500,000 R (1986)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A

Ethnic groups: South Ndebele, North Sotho, others

 7 Oct 1977                South Ndebele Territorial Authority.
 1 Oct 1979                KwaNdebele
 1 Apr 1981                Self-rule granted.
12 Aug 1986                Legislative Assembly rejects independence scheduled for 11 Dec 1986.
 6 May 1987                Legislative Assembly makes unanimous decision to opt for
                             independence. However, South Africa requests a referendum be held.
29 Mar 1988 - 27 Apr 1994  Moutse district (added 1986) administered by South Africa.
27 Apr 1994                Re-integration into South Africa.

Chief ministers
Oct 1977 - 17 Nov 1986     Simon Somkhahlekwa Skosana         (b. 1927 - d. 1986)  Non-party
                            (chief executive councillor to Apr 1981)
17 Nov 1986 - 27 Nov 1986  Klaas Mtshiweni (acting)
27 Nov 1986 -  3 Feb 1989  Prince George Majozi Mahlangu      (b. 1951)
 3 Feb 1989 - 30 Apr 1990  Prince Jonas Masana Mabena         (b. 1936)
30 Apr 1990 - 26 Apr 1994  Prince Senzangakhona James         (b. 1953 - d. 2005)  IYP
                             Mahlangu

Commissioners-general of KwaNedebele
 1 Oct 1979 - 1981         J.A. van Tonder
 1 Oct 1981 - 30 Jun 1985  Johan T. Mills
 1 Jul 1985 - 20 Sep 1986  Gerrie J. van der Merwe
1986 - 1987                ....
 1 Jun 1987 - 199.         P.J.K. Kriel
 

Party abbreviation: IYP = Intando Yesizwe Party (The Will of the Nation Party est. 2 Dec 1990)



KwaZulu
 
[KwaZulu (South
                          African homeland) flag 1977 - 1985]
            31 Aug 1977 - 14 Jan 1985 
 
[KwaZulu (South African homeland)
                          flag 1985-1994]
            14 Jan 1985 - 27 Apr 1994
 
Map of KwaZulu
Capital: Ulundi
Hear Local Anthem
"Nkosi Sikelel'i Afrika"
(God, Bless Africa)
Population: 5,748,950 (1992)
GDP: $1,434,540,000 R (1986)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A

Ethnic groups: Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi,
Basotho, others

 9 Jun 1970                Zululand Territorial Authority
 1 Apr 1972                KwaZulu
 1 Feb 1977                Self-rule granted.
27 Apr 1994                Re-integration into South Africa.

Chief minister
 9 Jun 1970 - 26 Apr 1994  Ashpenaz Nathan Mangosuthu              (b. 1928)         INCLM;
                             Gatsha Buthelezi                                        1990 IFP                              (chief executive councillor to 1 Apr 1972)

Commissioners-general of Zulu (from 1 Apr 1972, KwaZulu)
 1 Jul 1960 - 1965         Cornelius Gert Nel                      (b. 1908 - d. 1970)
 1 Aug 1965 - 1970         Johannes Jeremias Boshoff               (b. 1895 - d. 1984)
1970 - Jul 1979            Philip Heinrich "Henry" Torlage         (b. 1909 - d. 1987)
 1 Aug 1979 - 198.         Paul Nicholaas "Nico" Hansmeyer         (b. 1921)
 1 Jan 1989 - 199.         C. Anthony "Tony" Erskine               (b. 1932)

Party abbreviation: INCLM = Inkatha National Cultural Liberation Movement, est.1975 renamed Inkatha Freedom Party [IFP] on 14 Jul 1990)



Lebowa

[Lebowa (South African
                homeland) flag 1974-1994]
              5 Jul 1974 - 27 Apr 1994
 
Map of Lebowa
Capital: Lebowakgomo
Hear Local Anthem
"Nkosi Sikelel'i Afrika"
(God, Bless Africa)
Population: 2,924,584 (1992)
GDP: $733,710,000 R (1986)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: North Sotho, Shangaan-Tsonga,
Ndebele, Swazi, others

 1 Jul 1960                North Sotho National Unit
 1 Jul 1971                Lebowa
 2 Oct 1972                Self-rule granted.
27 Apr 1994                Re-integration into South Africa.

Chief ministers
Aug 1969 -  8 May 1973     Mokgoma M. Matlala                (b. 1923?)           LNP
                            (chief councillor to 2 Oct 1972)
 8 May 1973 - 30 Sep 1987  Cedric Makepeace Namedi           (b. 1912 - d. 1987)  LPP
                             Phatudi
30 Sep 1987 - 21 Oct 1987  Z.T. Seleki (acting) 
21 Oct 1987 - 26 Apr 1994  Mogoboya Noko Nelson Ramodike     (b. 1941 - d. 2012)  LPP
                             (from 1989, Prime minister)


Commissioners-general of the South African Government
 1 Jul 1960 - 19..         Werner Willi Max Eiselen          (b. 1899 – d. 1977)
1972 - 1977                Gert Pieter Christiaan            (d. 1977)
                             Bezuidenhout
1977 - 1982                Roelof McLachlan                  (b. 1916 - d. ....)  
1982 - 31 Jan 1988         Petrus Johannes Visser Erasmus    (b. 192.)
                             Pretorius
Mar 1988 - 1989            Nicolaas Johan Nieuwoudt          (b. 1929 - d. 1989)
 1 Apr 1990 - c.1992       J. Martin "Thabo" Koekemoer       (b. 1938)

Party abbreviations: LNP = Lebowa National Party; LPP = Lebowa People's Party (est.1972, from 1988 Thari ya Setshaba)



Qwaqwa

[Qwaqwa (South African
                homeland) flag 1975-1994]
           18 Jul 1975 - 27 Apr 1994
 
Map of Qwaqwa
Capital: Phuthaditjhaba
Hear Local Anthem
"Nkosi Sikelel'i Afrika"
(God, Bless Africa)
Population: 288,155 (1992)
GDP: $151,990,000 R (1986)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A

Ethnic groups: Basotho (Qwaqwa, Kwena, Tlokwa)

 1 Jul 1960                South Sotho National Unit
24 Apr 1969                Basotho ba Borwa Territorial Authority established.
 1 Apr 1972                Basotho Qwaqwa
 1 Nov 1974                Qwaqwa (self-rule achieved).
27 Apr 1994                Re-integration into South Africa.

Chief ministers
Apr 1969 - Feb 1975        Wessels Mota                       (d. 1988)           1974: BUP
                            (chief councillor to 1 Nov 1974,
                             then chief executive councillor)
Mar 1975 - 26 Apr 1994     Tsiame Kenneth Mopeli              (b. 1930)           DP
                            (chief executive councillor to 19 May 1975)

Commissioners-general of the South African government
 1 Jul 1960 - 19..         Simon Frederick Papenfus           (b. 1905 - d. ....)
1970 - 1975                Nicolaas Christiaan "Chris" van    (b. 1913)
                           Rooyen Sadie                 
 1 Oct 1975 -  9 Nov 1983  Jacobus Stephanus "Kosie"          (b. 1918 - d. 2010)
                             Pansegrouw
198. - 1985                J.M. van Rooyen                    (d. 1985)
 1 Jul 1985 - 14 Mar 1990  David "Dawie" McKenzie Grewar      (b. 1927 - d. 1990)
16 May 1990 - 199.         Willem Adriaan Odendaal

Party abbreviations: BUP = Basotho Unity Party (est.1974); DP = Dikwankwetla Party (governing party, est.1974)



Transkei
 
[Transkei
                          (South African homeland) flag provisional flag
                          1964-1966]
      1964 - 20 May 1966 (provisional)
 
[Transkei
                          (South African homeland) flag 1966-1994]
           20 May 1966 - 27 Apr 1994
 
Map of The Transkei
Hear National Anthem
"Nkosi Sikelel'i Afrika"
(God, Bless Africa)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 26 Oct 1976
Constitution
(26 Oct 1976)
Capital: Umtata
Currency: South African
Rand (ZAR)
National Holiday: 26 Oct (1976)
Independence Day
Population: 4,746,796 (1992)
GDP: $784 million R (1989)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: mainly Xhosa, Basotho,
Zulu, white
Total Defense Force: 3,500-4,000 (1993)
Religions: N/A
International Organizations/Treaties: CMA, DBSA, ECOSA, SACU, SECOSAF

1960                       Xhosa National Unit
24 Mar 1961                Transkei Territorial Authority established.
30 May 1963                Self-government granted.
26 Oct 1976                Declared independent by South Africa (Republic of Transkei)
                             (recognized only by South Africa and the other homelands).
27 Apr 1994                Re-integrated into South Africa.


Chief Councillor
1961 - 6 Dec 1963          Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima         (b. 1915 - d. 2003)
Chief minister
 6 Dec 1963 - 26 Oct 1976  Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima         (s.a.)               1964: NIPT
Presidents

26 Oct 1976 -  1 Dec 1978  Botha Manzolwandle Jongilizwe      (b. 1913 - d. 1978)  NIPT 
                             Sigcau 
 1 Dec 1978 - 19 Feb 1979  Zwelibanzi Maneli Mabandla (acting)
19 Feb 1979 - 20 Feb 1986  Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima         (s.a.)               NIPT
20 Feb 1986 - 26 Apr 1994  Tutor Nyangilizwe Vulindlela       (b. 1921 - d. 1997)  NIPT; 1987
                             Ndamase                                               Non-party


Prime ministers
26 Oct 1976 - 20 Feb 1979  Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima         (s.a.)               NIPT
20 Feb 1979 - 24 Sep 1987  George Mzimvubu Matanzima          (b. 1918 - d. 2000)  NIPT
25 Sep 1987 -  5 Oct 1987  Dumnisani Gladstone Gwadiso        (b. 1952)            NIPT
                            (acting)
 5 Oct 1987 - 30 Dec 1987  Stella Margaret Nomzano Sigcau (f) (b. 1937 - d. 2006)  NIPT
Chairman of the Military Council and of the Council of Ministers
30 Dec 1987 - 26 Apr 1994  Harrington Bantu Holomisa          (b. 1955)            Mil

Commissioners-general of Xhosa (from 1961, Transkei)
 1 Jul 1960 - 31 May 1974  Johannes "Hans" Hendrikus Abraham  (b. 1908 – d. 1978)
31 May 1974 - 26 Oct 1976  D.H. "Danie" Potgieter

Party abbreviations (from Dec 1987 parties banned): NIPT = National Independence Party of Transkei (pro-independence, 1964-1987); Mil = Military



Venda

[Venda (South African
                homeland) flag 1973-1994]
            21 Jul 1973 - 27 Apr 1994
 
Map of Venda
Hear National Anthem
"Pfano na vhuthihi"
(Peace and Togetherness)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1979
Constitution
(13 Sep 1979)
Capital: Thohoyandou
Currency: South African
Rand (ZAR)
National Holiday: 13 Sep (1978)
Independence Day
Population: 718,207 (1990)
GDP: $688.2 millon R (1989)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: vhaVenda, others
Total Defense Force: about 1,800 (1993)
Religions: N/A
International Organizations/Treaties: CMA, DBSA, ECOSA, SACU, SECOSAF

1966                       Venda-Tsonga National Unit
20 Jun 1969                Thohoyandou Territorial Authority
 1 Jun 1971                Venda
 1 Feb 1973                Self-government achieved.
13 Sep 1979                Declared independent by South Africa (Republic of Venda)
                             (recognized only by South Africa and the other homelands).
27 Apr 1994                Re-integrated into South Africa.

Chief Councillor
Oct 1969 -  1 Feb 1973     Patrick Ramaano Mbulaheni Mphephu  (b. 1926 - d. 1988)  VNP
Chief minister
 1 Feb 1973 - 13 Sep 1979  Patrick Ramaano Mbulaheni Mphephu  (s.a.)               VNP Presidents
13 Sep 1979 - 17 Apr 1988  Patrick Ramaano Mbulaheni Mphephu  (s.a.)               VNP
17 Apr 1988 -  5 Apr 1990  Frank Nndwakhulu Ravhele           (b. 1926 - d. 1999)  VNP
                             (acting to 10 May 1988)
Heads of State (Chairmen of the Council of National Unity)
 5 Apr 1990 - 25 Jan 1994  Gabriel Mutheiwana Ramushwana      (b. 1941)            Mil
25 Jan 1994 - 26 Apr 1994  Tshamano Gerso Ramabulana                               Mil


Commissioners-general of Venda
(and to 1969 Tsonga)
1966 - 197.                Michiel Daniel Christiaan de       (b. 1901 - d. 19..)
                             Wet Nel
 1 May 1975 - 12 Sep 1979  Johannes Cornelius Otto


Party abbreviations:
VIP = Venda Independence People's Party (VNP opposition); VNP = Venda National Party (only legal party Aug 1986-1990, banned from Apr 1990); Mil = Military







© Ben Cahoon