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South Sudan

[Flag of the United Kingdom]
              2 Sep 1898  - 1 Jan 1956 Joint flag U.K.

[Flag of Sudan, 1956-70]
                    1 Jan 1956 - 20 May 1970

[Flag of Sudan]
                      20 May 1970 - 9 Jul 2011

[South Sudan]
                    Adopted 9 Jul 2011  
 




Map of Southern Sudan
Hear National Anthem
"Land of Kush"

Hear Local Anthem
Adopted 9 Jul 2011
Constitution
(6 Dec 2005; interim)
Capital: Juba Currency: Sudanese Pound
(SDP) 
National Holiday: 9 Jul (2011)
Independence Day
--------------------------------------
  16 May (1983)
Founding of the Sudan Peoples’
 Liberation Army
(Regional Holiday 2005-2011)
Population: 8,260,490 (2008) 
GDP: $98.7 billion (2010)
Exports: $N/A (2010)
Imports: $N/A  (2010)
Ethnic groups: Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Lotuko, Kuku, Zande,
Mundari, Kakwa, Pojulu, Shilluk, Moru, Acholi, Madi,
Lulubo, Lokoya, Toposa, Lango, Didinga, Murle, Anuak,
Makaraka, Mundu, Jur, Kaliko, and others
Total Active SPLA Armed Forces: 25,000 (2003)
Merchant marine: N/A (2011)
Religions:  Animist and traditional beliefs, Christian (Roman
Catholic and Anglican),
Sunni Muslim, other
International Organizations/Treaties:
South Sudan
 Index
Chronology

26 May 1871                Equatoria province of Egyptian Sudan (see Sudan).
Apr 1889                   Part of the Mahdiya (see Sudan).
 2 Sep 1898                Mahdiya extinguished by Britain.
12 May 1894 - 10 Jun 1910  Lado district leased to the Belgian Congo.
19 Jan 1899                Part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (see Sudan).
1922 - 13 Jun 1947         Aborted British plan to 
administer the southern
                             
provinces of The Sudan separately from the
                             northern provinces.

28 Feb 1972 -  5 Jun 1983  Self-government for the three Southern
                             provinces
(Southern Sudan Autonomous Region)
                             
(included Equatoria, Bahr al-Ghazal, and
                              Upper Nile with capital at Juba).

 5 Jun 1983 -  9 Jan 2005  Rebellion against the Sudanese government.
 9 Jul 2005                Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan
                             within The Sudan
established.
 9-15 Jan 2011             
Referendum votes 98.83% for independence.
 9 Jul 2011                Republic of Sout Sudan, independence
                             from The Sudan.

Southern Sudan Region
(1972-2011)
Governments
in Exile

(1967-1970)
Map of Civil War
1983-2005
Historical Maps
of Sudan 
 
 
 
 
 
 


President
 9 Jul 2011 -              Salva Kiir Mayardit               (b. 1951)            SPLM




Southern Sudan

[Southern Sudan]
  9 Jul 2005 - 9 Jul 2011 Region Flag

Chairmen of the Southern Region High Executive Council

 6 Apr 1972 - Feb 1978     Abel Alier (1st time)             (b. 1933)            SF
Feb 1978 - 12 Jul 1979     Joseph Lagu                       (b. 1931)            SANU
1979 - 1980                Peter Gatkuoth 
30 May 1980 -  5 Oct 1981  Abel Alier (2nd time)             (s.a.)               SF/SSU
 5 Oct 1981 - 23 Jun 1982  Gismalla Abdalla Rassas (interim)                      SSLM
23 Jun 1982 -  5 Jun 1983  Joseph James Tombura              (b. 1929? - d. ....) SANU 
 5 Jun 1983 - 25 May 1985  Post abolished
25 May 1985 - May 1986     James Loro                                             SSU  
May 1986 - May 1987        Post abolished
Chairmen of the Council for the South
31 Jan 1987 - Jan 1988     Matthew Abor Ayang
Jan 1988 - Jun 1989        Angelo Beda 
Jun 1989 -  7 Aug 1997     Post abolished
Chairmen of the Southern Sudan Coordination Council
 7 Aug 1997 - 31 Jan 2000  Riek Mashar Teny                  (b. 1952)            SPLM-U
2000? -  9 Dec 2002        Galwak Deng                                            SNC
 9 Dec 2002 - 2005         Riek Gai Kok                                           SNC
Presidents of the Government of Southern Sudan
 9 Jul 2005 - 30 Jul 2005  John Garang de Maboir             (b. 1945 - d. 2005)  SPLM
 1 Aug 2005 -  9 Jul 2011  Salva Kiir Mayardit               (s.a.)               SPLM 
                             (acting to 11 Aug 2005)


Rebel Leaders

[Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) 1979-1990's]
             1979 - 1990's  SPLA/M flag
 
[ Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) flag 1990's-2005]
                 1990's - 2005  SPLM flag

President of the Southern Sudan Liberation Front (SSLF)
(from Aug 1971, Southern Sudan Liberation Movement [SSLM])
Oct 1969 - 28 Mar 1972     Joseph Lagu                       (s.a.)               SSLF/SSLM
Chairman of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM)
 5 Jun 1983 -  9 Jan 2005  John Garang de Maboir             (s.a.)               SPLM

Governments in Exile (Based in Kampala, Uganda)

[Southern Sudan Provisional Government, 1967-1969]
          Aug 1967 - 27 Mar  1969 
 Southern Sudan Provisional Government
 
[Nile State flag, 1969-1970]
    Mar 1969 - 23 Jul 1970 Nile State 
 
 
[Anya-Naya flag, 1969-1970]
 15 Jul 1969 - Apr 1970 Anya-Naya flag
 
 

President of the Southern Sudan Provisional Government
15 Aug 1967 - 27 Mar 1969  Aggrey Jaden                      (b. 1924 - d. 1985)  ALF
President of the Nile Provisional Government (NPG)
Mar 1969 - 23 Jul 1970     Gordon Mayen Muortat (Mortat)     (b. 1922 - d. 2008)
President of the Anyidi Revolutionary Government (in opposition to NPG)
15 Jul 1969 - Apr 1970     Emilio Tafeng                     (b. c.1910)          Mil/AN


Party abbreviations: SNC = Sudanese National Congress Party (mainly Arab/Muslim, Islamist);
SANU = Sudan African National Union; SPLM = Sudan People's Liberation Movement (pro-southern autonomy, political arm of Sudan Peoples' Liberation Army SPLA, est.1983); SSIM = Southern Sudan Independence Movement (SPLM break-away, est.Aug 1991 by Riak Machar); SSLM = Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (Southern Sudan regionalist, to Aug 1971 SSLF; est.20-30,000 [2002]); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ALF = Azanian Liberation Front; AN = Anya-Naya (militant southern Sudan separatist, 1970 absorbed by SSLF); SF = Southern Front; SPLM-U = Sudan People's Liberation Movement-United (break away faction of SPLM); SSLF = Southern Sudan Liberation Front (renamed Aug 1971, SSLM)





©2011  Ben Cahoon