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São Tomé and Príncipe
 
[Portugal]
                 to 5 Nov 1975 
 
[São
                                    Tomé and Príncipe 1967 Portuguese
                                    colonial flag proposal]
          1967 proposed colonial flag
 
[Flag of
                                    São Tomé and Príncipe]
                        Adopted 5 Nov 1975
 
Map of São Tomé
and Príncipe
Hear National Anthem
"Independência total"
(Total Independence)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1975
Constitution
(10 Sep 1990; in Portuguese)
Capital: São Tomé
(Santo António
15 Nov 1753 - 5 Oct 1852)
Currency: Dobra (STD)
National Holiday: 12 Jul (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 186,817 (2013)
GDP: $421 million (2013)
Exports:  $12.1 million (2013)
Imports: $112.8 million (2013)
Ethnic groups: Mestiços/Forros (black- white mixture) 79.5%, 
Angolares
(descendants of runaway slaves) 7.6%,
European (primarily
Portuguese) 1.9%, and others (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 600 (2007)
Merchant marine: 3 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 55.7%, Adventist 4.1%, Assembly
of God 3.4%, New Apostolic 2.9%, Mana 2.3%, Universal Kingdom
 of God 2%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, other 6.2%, none 21.2%,
 unspecified 1% (2012)

International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, APM, AU, BTWC, CCM (signatory), CEEAC, CEMAC, CEN-SAD, CPLP, CTBT (signatory), CWC, ENMOD, ESCR (signatory), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ITU, ITUC, KP, LU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNCLOS, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
São Tomé and
Príncipe Index
Chronology

21 Dec 1470                São Tomé discovered by João de Santarem
                             and Pêro Escobar and claimed for Portugal.
17 Jan 1471                Príncipe discovered, named Santo António 
                             (Antão); from 1502 named Príncipe.
1472                       Formosa island, later named Fernão do Po,
                             discovered and claimed for Portugal.
 1 Jan 1474                Ano Bom island discovered and claimed for
                             Portugal from 1494.
1485                       São Tomé a Portuguese colony (donataria).
1500                       Príncipe a Portuguese colony (donataria)(named
                             Santo António to 1502).
Dec 1522                   São Tomé made a Portuguese crown colony.
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Islands along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
 9 Jul 1595 - 28 Jul 1595  São Tomé occupied by slaves during a revolt.
 9 Aug 1598 - 26 Nov 1598  Dutch occupation of Príncipe.
18 Oct 1599 - Nov 1599     Dutch occupy São Tomé. 
16 Oct 1641 -  6 Jan 1649  Dutch occupy São Tomé and Ano Bom (Annobón).
19 Apr 1709 - 15 May 1709  French occupation of São Tomé.
1753                       São Tomé and Príncipe (a united) Portuguese 
                             crown colony.
11 Mar 1778                Ano Bom and Fernão do Po ceded to Spain
                             (see Equatorial Guinea).
11 Jun 1951                São Tomé & Príncipe a Portuguese overseas province.
21 Dec 1974                Autonomy, transitional government formed.
12 Jul 1975                Independence from Portugal 
                            (Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe).

São Tomé and
Príncipe
(from 1753)
São Tomé
(1485-1753)
Príncipe
(1502-1753, 1995-)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

São Tomé

21 Dec 1470                São Tomé discovered by João de Santarem
                             and Pêro Escobar and claimed for Portugal.
1485                       São Tomé a Portuguese colony (donataria).
24 Jun 1522                São Tomé a Portuguese crown colony.
1565 - 1566                Occupied by slaves during a revolt.
18 Oct 1599 - Nov 1599     Dutch occupation. 
16 Oct 1641 -  6 Jan 1649  Dutch occupation.
19 Apr 1709 - 15 May 1709  French occupation. 
1753                       United with Principe to form colony of
                             São Tomé and Príncipe (s.a.).

Donataries of São Tomé
24 Sep 1485 - 1490         João de Paiva
1490 - 1493                João Pereira
1493 - 1499                Álvaro de Caminha Souto-Maior      (d. 1499)
1499 –  4 Jan 1500         Vacant  
 4 Jan 1500 - c.1512       Fernando de Melo
c.1512 – 24 Jun 1522       João de Mello

Captains-major
1485 - 1490                João de Paiva
1490 - 1493                João Pereira
1493 - 1499                Álvaro de Caminha Souto-Maior      (s.a.)  
11 Dec 1499 - c.1512       Fernão de Melo
1512? - 1522               João de Melo da Câmara
c.1516 - c.1517            Diogo de Alcáçova
1517 - 19 Dec 1522         João de Mello
1523 - 15..                Vasco Esteves
15.. - 1531                Fernão Lopes de Segura 
1531 - c.1535              Henrique Pereira
c.1535 - 1541              Pedro Botelho (1st time)
1541 - 1545                Diogo Botelho Pereira              (d. 1550)
1545 – 1546                Lourenço Fernandes da Silva
1546 - c.1554              Francisco de Barros de Paiva       (d. 1560)
c.1558 - 1559              Pedro Botelho (2nd time)
1559 - 1560                Cristóvão de Barros 
1560 - 1564                Cristóvão Dória de Sousa
1564 - 1569                Francisco de Gouveia               (d. 1577)
1569 - 1571                Francisco de Paula Teles
1571 - 1575                Diogo Salema
1575 - c.1582              António Monteiro Maciel
c.1582 - c.1584            ....
c.1584 - 1586              Francisco Fernandes de Figueiredo  (d. 1587)
Governors 
1586 - 1587                Francisco Fernandes de Figueiredo  (s.a.)
1587                       Martinho de Ulhoa (acting)         (b. 1496 - d. 1606)
1587 - 1591                Miguel Teles de Moura              (d. 1591)
1591                       Gonçalo Alves (acting)               
1591 - 1592                Duarte Peixoto da Silva            (d. 1592)
1592 - 1593                Francisco de Vila Nova de Portimão (d. 1600)
                             (acting)
1593 - 1597                Fernando de Meneses
 9 Jul 1595 - 28 Jul 1595  Amador -Revolt leader              (d. 1595)
1597 - 1598                Vasco de Carvalho
18 Oct 1599 - Nov 1599     Pieter van der Does -Dutch commander
1598 - 1601                João Barbosa da Cunha (1st time)
                             (
acting)
1601 - 1604                António Maciel Monteiro (acting)
1604 - 1608                Pedro Botelho de Andrade
1608 - 1609                João Barbosa da Cunha (2nd time)
                             (acting) 
25 Jan 1609 – Feb 1609     Fernando de Noronha                (d. 1609)
Feb 1609 – 1609            João Barbosa da Cunha (3rd time)
                             (acting)
1609 - 1611                Constantino Lobo Tavares           (d. 1611)
1611                       João Barbosa da Cunha (4th time)
                             (acting) 
1611                       Francisco Teles de Meneses         (d. 1611)
1611 - 1613                Luís Dias de Abreu
(1st time)      (d. 1620)
1613 - 1614                Feliciano Coelho de Carvalho       (d. 1614)
1614 –  6 Jul 1614         Jerônimo de Quintanilha            (d. 1614)
1614 - 1616                Luís Dias de Abreu (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1616 - 1620                Miguel Correia Baharem             (d. 1620)
1620 – 26 Oct 1621         Pedro da Cunha Lobo                (d. 1621)
26 Oct 1621 – May 1623     Félix Pereira
May 1623 - 1627            Jerônimo de Melo Fernando
1627 - 1628                André Gonçalves Maracote           (d. 1628)
1628 – 30 Oct 1630         Lourenço Pires de Távora
(1st time)
                             (
acting)
30 Oct 1630 - 1632         Francisco Barreto de Meneses       (d. 1632)
1632 – Apr 1636            Lourenço Pires de Távora (2nd time)
                             (acting)
Apr 1636 – Jul 1636        António de Sousa Carvalho          (d. 1636)
Jul 1636                   Filipe Tavares Metello
Jul 1636 - 1640            Lourenço Pires de Távora (3rd time)
                             (acting)
1640                       Manuel Quaresma Carneiro           (d. 1640)
1640 - 1641                Miguel Pereira de Mello e 
                             Albuquerque (acting)
16 Oct 1641 -  6 Jan 1649  
Cornelis Jol ? -Dutch commander
1641 –  8 Nov 1642         Paulo da Ponte (acting)
 8 Nov 1642 - 1645         Lourenço Pires de Távora (4th time)
1645 – 28 Sep 1656         Jerônimo Correia de Carvalho      
28 Sep 1656 - 1661         Cristóvão de Barros e Rêgo
1661 - 1669                Pedro da Silva
1669 - 1671                Paulo Ferreira de Noronha
1671 - 1673                Chamber Senate
1673 – 13 Jul 1677         Julião de Campos Barreto
13 Jul 1677 - 1680         Bernardino Freire de Andrade
1680 – 13 Jan 1683         Jacinto de Figueiredo e Abreu      (d. 1683)
13 Jan 1683 – 1683         Chamber Senate
1683 – 12 Nov 1687         João Álvares da Cunha (acting)     (d. 1696)
12 Nov 1687 – 1687         António Pereira de Brito e Lemos   (d. 1687)
1687 – Jun 1689            Bento de Sousa Lima                (d. 169?)
1689 - 1693                António Pereira de Lacerda
1693 - 1694                António Pereira de Berredo         (d. 1694)
1694 – 22 Jul 1695         Chamber Senate
22 Jul 1695 –  8 Jan 1696  José Pereira Sodré                 (d. 1696)
 8 Jan 1696 – Oct 1697     João da Costa Matos
                           + Chamber Senate   
Oct 1697 – Feb 1702        Manuel António Pinheiro da Câmara
1702 – 17 Oct 1709         José Correia de Castro
17 Oct 1709 - Jun 1710     Vicente Dinis Pinheiro             (d. 1710)
19 Apr 1709 - 15 May 1709  Parent -French commander
Jun 1709 – 24 Jun 1715     Chamber Senate  
24 Jun 1715 - 1716         Bartolomeu da Costa Ponte
1716 – Oct 1717            Chamber Senate
Oct 1717 - 1720            António Furtado de Mendonça
1718 - 1718                Chamber Senate
                           + José de Castro
                           (acting for Mendonça)
1720 – 13 Apr 1722         Chamber Senate
13 Apr 1722 – 22 Oct 1727  José Pinheiro da Câmara
22 Oct 1727 –  4 Jan 1731  Serafim Teixeira Sarmento de Sá
 4 Jan 1731 –  5 Dec 1736  Lopo de Sousa Coutinho             (d. 1755)
 5 Dec 1736 – May 1741     José Caetano de Soto Maior         (d. 1756)
May 1741 – 26 Jun 1741     António Ferrão de Castello Branco  (d. 1741)
26 Jun 1741 - 1744         Chamber Senate
1744                       Francisco Luís da Conceição        (d. 1744)
1744 - 1745                Francisco de Alva Brandão (acting)
1745 – 1747                Chamber Senate
1747 - 1748                Francisco Luís das Chagas          (d. 1748)
1748 – 21 May 1751         Chamber Senate
21 May 1751 –  2 Jun 1751  António Rodrigues Neves            (b. 1678 - d. 1751)
 2 Jun 1751 - 1754         Chamber Senate
Captains-major

1758 - 1768                João Francisco de Almeida
1768 – 1780                Luis de Almeida Preto de Carvalho
1780 – 1787                Gregório Alves Pereira
1787 – 1788                João Antonio Teixeira de Bragança
1788 – 1799                João Batista e Silva de Lagos
1799 - 18..                Antonio Jacinto de Araújo
18.. – 1802                Tomás José da Costa
                           + André Teixeira de Sousa e Aragão
c.1802 – 23 Sep 1810       Gabriel Antonio Franco de Castro
23 Sep 1810 – 27 Jun 1815  João Ferreira Guimarães            (d. 1818)
27 Jun 1815 –  8 Nov 1815  Raimundo José da Cunha Mattos      (b. 1776 - d. 1839)
 8 Nov 1815 - 18..         Francisco de Sousa Carvalho
18.. - 18..                Bernardino José Simões
18.. - 18..                Duarte José da Silva


São Tomé and Príncipe

Secretary-general of the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé e Príncipe (MLSTP)
1972 - Oct 1990            Manuel Pinto da Costa              (b. 1937)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished Aug 1990)

Governors
1754                       Lopo de Sousa Coutinho             (d. 1754)
1754 – Feb 1758            Chamber Senate             
Feb 1758 - 1761            Luís Henrique da Mota e Mello
1761 - 1767                Chamber Senate
1767 - 1769                Lourenço Lôbo de Almeida Garcéz    (d. 1769)
                             Palha
1769 – Nov 1770            Chamber Senate
Nov 1770 – Jul 1779        Vicente Gomes Ferreira
Jul 1779 - 1782            João Manuel da Azambuja            (d. 1782)
1782 - 1786                Cristóvão Xavier de Sá
1786 – 1788                João Antonio Teixeira de Bragança
                             (acting)
1788 –  7 Jan 1797         João Rosendo Tavares Leotte
 7 Jan 1797 –  7 Feb 1797  Ignácio Francisco da Nóbrega       (d. 1797)
                             Sousa Coutinho
 7 Feb 1797 – 1797         Manuel Monteiro de Carvalho
                             (acting)
1797 – 13 Oct 1797         Antonio Pereira Bastos Lima Varela
                             Barca
                           + Manuel Francisco Joaquim da Mota
                           (acting)
13 Oct 1797 – 1798         Francisco de Paula Leite
                           + José Joaquim Borges da Silva
1798 –  4 Aug 1799         Francisco Rafael de Castello de
    (d. 1800)
                             Vide                        
                           + João da Costa Cravide
                           + João Ferreira Guimarães          (d. 1818) 
                           + Manuel Monteiro de Carvalho
                           + Joaquim Pedro Lagrange                               
 4 Aug 1799 –  4 Oct 1802  João Baptista e Silva de Lagos
 4 Oct 1802 – 31 Aug 1805  Gabriel António Franco de Castro
31 Aug 1805 - 1815         Luís Joaquim Lisboa                (b. 17.. - d. 1815)
1815 – 1816                Governing Junta
1816 – 1817                Luis de Abreu Vieira               (d. 1817)
1817                       Governing Junta
1817 - 1824                Felipe de Freitas
1824 - 1830                João Maria Xavier de Brito
1830 - 1834                Joaquim Bento da Fonseca           (b. c.1776 - d. 18..)
1834 - 1836                Provisional government
1836 - 1837                Fernando José Correia Henriques de
                             Noronha, visconde de Torre Bela
                             (acting)
1837 - 1838                Leandro José da Costa (1st time)
1838 - 1839                José Joaquim de Urbanski
1839                       José Fernando da Costa (acting)  
1839 - 1843                Bernardo José de Sousa Soares      (b. 1795 - d. 1844)
                             de Andrea

 5 Feb 1843 -  2 Mar 1843  Leandro José da Costa (2nd time)
 2 Mar 1843 -  1 May 1846  José Maria Marques (1st time)
 1 May 1846 – 26 Jan 1847  Government Council
26 Jan 1847 – 30 Sep 1847  Leandro José da Costa (3rd time)   
30 Sep 1847 - 22 Nov 1847  Carlos Augusto de Morais e Almeida (b. 1807 - d. 1847)
22 Nov 1847 - 20 Jul 1848  Government Council
20 Jul 1848 - 30 Jun 1849  José Caetano René Vimont Pessôa    (d. 1849)
12 Dec 1849 -  9 Mar 1851  Leandro José da Costa (4th time)
 9 Mar 1851 - 20 Mar 1853  José Maria Marques (2nd time)
20 Mar 1853 - 28 Jul 1855  Francisco José de Pina Rolo
28 Jul 1855 - 21 Mar 1857  Adriano Maria Passaláqua           (d. 1857)
21 Mar 1857 - 15 Jan 1858  Government Council (incomplete)
                           - Bernardo Francisco de Albuquerque
15 Jan 1858 - 29 May 1858  Francisco António Correia          (d. 1858)
29 May 1858 -  7 Feb 1859  Government Council  (incomplete)
                           - Candido Augusto Xavier?
                           -  Bernardo Soares Vieira da Mota      
 7 Feb 1859 –  8 Jul 1860  Luis José Pereira e Horta          (d. 1861)
 8 Jul 1860 – 21 Nov 1860  Government Council (incomplete)
                           - Manuel de Melo
                           - Vicente Frederico Scarnichia 
21 Nov 1860 -  8 Jul 1862  José Pedro de Mello                (b. 1824 - d. 1877)
 8 Jul 1862 - 17 Nov 1862  Government Council
17 Nov 1862 - 30 Mar 1863  José Eduardo da Costa Moura
30 Mar 1863 -  8 Jan 1864  João Baptista Brunachy (1st time)
 8 Jan 1864 -  2 Aug 1865  Estanislau Xavier de Assumpção e 
                             Almeida (1st time)
 2 Aug 1865 - 30 Jul 1867  João Baptista Brunachy (2nd time)
30 Jul 1867 - 30 Sep 1867  António Joaquim da Fonseca
30 Sep 1867 - 30 May 1869  Estanislau Xavier de Assumpção e 
                             Almeida (2nd time)
30 May 1869 -  7 Oct 1872  Pedro Carlos de Aguiar Craveiro    (b. 1834 - d. ....) 
                             Lopes
 7 Oct 1872 - Jul 1873     João Clímaco de Carvalho           (d. 1873)
Jul 1873 – 28 Oct 1873     Government Council
28 Oct 1873 -  6 Sep 1876  Gregório José Ribeiro              (b. 1829 - d. 1884)
 6 Sep 1876 –  1 Nov 1876  Government Council
 1 Nov 1876 - 26 Sep 1879  Estanislau Xavier de Assumpção e 
                             Almeida (3rd time)
26 Sep 1879 - 28 Nov 1879  Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do      (b. 1844 - d. 1923)
                             Amaral
28 Nov 1879 -  3 Jan 1880  Custódio Miguel de Borja (1st time)(b. 1849 - d. 1911) 
                             (acting)
 3 Jan 1880 - 30 Dec 1881  Vicente Pinheiro Lobo Machado de   (b. 1852 - d. 1922)
                             Mello e Almada, visconde de
                             Pindela 
30 Dec 1881 - 26 Jan 1882  Augusto Maria Leão (acting)
26 Jan 1882 - 23 May 1884  Francisco Teixeira da Silva        (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
23 May 1884 – 24 May 1884  Antonio Augusto Crispiniano da
                             Fonseca (acting)   
24 May 1884 - 25 Aug 1886  Custódio Miguel de Borja (2nd time)(s.a.)
 8 Aug 1885 – 19 Sep 1885  Augusto Cesar de Moura Cabral
                             (acting for Borja)
25 Sep 1885 – 25 Feb 1886  Augusto Cesar de Moura Cabral
                             (acting for Borja)
25 Aug 1886 -  9 Mar 1890  Augusto César Rodrigues Sarmento
 9 Mar 1890 - 26 Jun 1891  Firmino José da Costa
26 Jun 1891 - 20 Nov 1894  Francisco Eugênio Pereira de       (b. 1848 - d. ....)
                             Miranda
20 Nov 1894 –  8 Dec 1894  Government Council
 8 Dec 1894 -  8 Apr 1895  Jaime Lobo Brito Godins (acting)
 8 Apr 1895 - 16 Mar 1897  Cipriano Leite Pereira Jardim      (b. 1841 - d. 1913)
16 Mar 1897 –  5 Apr 1897  Artur de Almeida Ribeiro
                            (president of Government Council)

 5 Apr 1897 - 19 Mar 1899  Joaquim da Graça Correia e Lança   (b. 1855 - d. 1900)
19 Mar 1899 –  5 Apr 1899  Government Council
 5 Apr 1899 -  3 Jan 1901  Amâncio de Alpoim Cerqueira        (b. c.1860 - d. 1912)
                             Borges Cabral
 3 Jan 1901 -  8 May 1901  Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira 
                             (acting)
 8 May 1901 -  1 Oct 1902  Joaquim Xavier de Brito
 1 Oct 1902 –  8 Oct 1902  Bernardo Correia de Castro         (b. 1866 - d. 1912)
                            
Sepúlveda (1st time)(acting)   
 8 Oct 1902 - 17 May 1903  João Abel Antunes Mesquita 
                             Guimarães
17 May 1903 –  7 Jun 1903  Bernardo Correia de Castro         (s.a.)
                             Sepúlveda (2nd time)(acting)
 7 Jun 1903 - 12 Dec 1903  João Gregório Duarte Ferreira 
                             (1st time)(acting)
12 Dec 1903 – 14 Dec 1903  Bernardo Correia de Castro         (s.a.)
                            
Sepúlveda (3rd time)(acting)
14 Dec 1903 - 13 Apr 1907  Francisco de Paula Cid
13 Apr 1907 - 24 Jun 1907  Vitor Augusto Chaves Lemos e 
                             Mello (1st time) (acting)
24 Jun 1907 – Sep 1908     Pedro Berquó
Sep 1908 – 24 Oct 1908     José Gomes de Carvalho (acting)
24 Oct 1908 - 13 Mar 1909  Vitor Augusto Chaves Lemos e 
                             Mello (2nd time) (acting)
13 Mar 1909 - Mar 1910     José Augusto Vieira da Fonseca
Mar 1910 – 30 May 1910     Antonio Maria da Silva (acting)
30 May 1910 – 13 Jun 1910  Bernardo Correia de Castro         (s.a.)
                            
Sepúlveda (4th time)(acting)  
13 Jun 1910 - 21 Jul 1910  Jaime Daniel Leote do Rego         (b. 1867 - d. 1923)  
                             (1st time)
21 Jul 1910 –  7 Aug 1910  Government Council
 7 Aug 1910 – Oct 1910     Fernando Augusto de Carvalho
Oct 1910 – 19 Oct 1910     Nicolau Reis (acting)
19 Oct 1910 – 11 Nov 1910  Henrique Alberto de Oliveira
                             (acting)
12 Nov 1910 –  2 Dec 1910  Carlos de Mendonça Pimentel e
                             Mello (acting)
 2 Dec 1910 -  5 Jun 1911  António Pinto Miranda Guedes
 5 Jun 1911 – 14 Jun 1911  Avelino Augusto de Oliveira Leite  (d. 1950)
                             (1st time)(acting)
14 Jun 1911 –  5 Nov 1911  Jaime Daniel Leote do Rego 
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
 5 Nov 1911 – 24 Dec 1911  Augusto Ferreira
dos Santos        (b. 1870 - d. 1944)
                             (acting)
24 Dec 1911 – 18 Apr 1913  Mariano Martins                    (b. 1880 - d. 1943)
Apr 1912 – 14 Jun 1912     Augusto Ferreira
dos Santos        (s.a.)
                             (acting for Martins) 
18 Apr 1913 – 13 May 1913  Government Council
13 May 1913 – Feb 1915     Pedro do Amaral Boto Machado       (b. 1868 - d. 1921)
                             (1st time)
Feb 1915 – 31 May 1915     Rafael dos Santos Oliveira (acting) 
31 May 1915 -  6 Jun 1915  José Dionisio Carneiro de Sousa    (b. 1868 - d. 1962)
                             e Faro
 6 Jun 1915 – Aug 1915     Rafael dos Santos Oliveira 
                             (2nd time)
Aug 1915 – Sep 1915        Joaquim José Duarte Guimarães
                             (acting)
Sep 1915 – Apr 1916        Bernardo Lopes da Silva (1st time)
                             (acting)
Apr 1916 – Jun 1917        Pedro do Amaral Boto Machado       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
Jun 1917 – Sep 1917        Bernardo Lopes da Silva (2nd time)
                             (acting)
Sep 1917 – 28 Jul 1918     Rafael dos Santos Oliveira
                             (3rd time)
28 Jul 1918 - 11 Jun 1919  João Gregório Duarte Ferreira
                             (2nd time)
11 Jun 1919 - Sep 1920     Avelino Augusto de Oliveira Leite  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Sep 1919 – Feb 1920        Julio Cesar de Andrade Freire
                             (acting for Leite)
Feb 1920                   Antonio Julio de Almeida Barbosa
                             (acting for Leite)
Feb 1920 – Mar 1920        Bernardo Francisco Bruto da Costa
                             (acting for Leite)   
Sep 1920 – 25 Sep 1920     Julio Cesar de Andrade Freire
                             (acting)
25 Sep 1920 - 22 Oct 1920  José Augusto de Conceição Alves
                             Vélez (acting)
22 Oct 1920 -  2 Jul 1921  Eduardo Nogueira de Lemos (acting)
 2 Jul 1921 - Dec 1923     António José Pereira
1923                       João Pinto Crisóstomo
                             (acting for Pereira)
Dec 1923 – 23 Jan 1924     Eduardo Nogueira de Lemos (acting)  
23 Jan 1924 - May 1926     Eugênio de Barros Soares Branco    (b. c.1889 - d. 19..)
May 1926 –  8 Jul 1926     Sebastião José Barbosa (1st time)
                             (acting)     
 8 Jul 1926 - 31 Aug 1928  José Duarte Junqueira Rato
31 Aug 1928 - 30 Jan 1929  Sebastião José Barbosa (2nd time)
                             (acting)
30 Jan 1929 - 31 Aug 1929  Francisco Penteado
31 Aug 1929 - 17 Dec 1933  Luís Augusto Vieira Fernandes
17 Dec 1933 -  8 May 1941  Ricardo Vaz Monteiro               (b. 1891 - d. 19..)
 8 May 1941 -  5 Apr 1945  Amadeu Gomes de Figueiredo
 5 Apr 1945 - Jun 1953     Carlos de Sousa Gorgulho           (d. 1972)
Jul 1948 -  8 Oct 1950     Afonso Manuel Machado de Sousa 
                             (1st time)(acting for Gorgulho)
 8 Oct 1950 - 28 Jun 1952  Mario José Cabral Oliveira Castro
                             (acting for Gorgulho)
28 Jun 1952 - 18 Apr 1953  Guilherme António Amaral Abranches
                             Pinto (acting for Gorgulho)
18 Apr 1953 - 19 May 1953  Fernando Augusto Rodrigues
                             (acting for Gorgulho)
19 May 1953 - Jul 1953     Afonso Manuel Machado de Sousa 
                             (acting [for Gorgulho to Jun 1953])
                             (2nd time)
Sep 1953 – 15 Aug 1954     Francisco António Pires Barata
15 Aug 1954 - 15 Jun 1955  Luís da Câmara Leme Faria (acting)
15 Jun 1955 -  5 Dec 1956  Adelino José Machado (acting)
 5 Dec 1956 - 13 Oct 1957  Octavio Ferreira Gonçalves (acting)
13 Oct 1957 – 26 Jul 1963  Manuel Marques de Abrantes Amaral   (b. 1914)
Jul 1961 –  4 Oct 1961     Aniano Mendes Serra
                             (acting for Amaral) 
26 Jul 1963 - 30 Oct 1963  Alberto Monteiro de Sousa Campos 
                             (acting)
30 Oct 1963 - 1972         António Jorge da Silva Sebastião    (b. 1919)
1973 - 1974                João Cecílio Gonçalves
1974 – 29 Jul 1974         Pinto Souto (acting)
29 Jul 1974 - 18 Dec 1974  António Elísio Capelo Pires Veloso  (b. 1926)
High Commissioner
18 Dec 1974 - 12 Jul 1975  António Elísio Capelo Pires Veloso  (s.a.)
Presidents
12 Jul 1975 -  4 Mar 1991  Manuel Pinto da Costa (1st timne)   (s.a.)                MLSTP
 4 Mar 1991 -  3 Apr 1991  Leonel Mário d'Alva (interim)       (b. 1935)             MLSTP 
 3 Apr 1991 - 15 Aug 1995  Miguel dos Anjos da Cunha Lisboa    (b. 1935)         Non-party/ADI
                             Trovoada (1st time)
15 Aug 1995 - 21 Aug 1995  Manuel Quintas de Almeida           (b. 1957? - d. 2006)  Mil
                             (chairman of National Salvation Junta)
21 Aug 1995 -  3 Sep 2001  Miguel dos Anjos da Cunha Lisboa    (s.a.)                ADI
                             Trovoada (1st time)
 3 Sep 2001 - 16 Jul 2003  Fradique Melo Bandeira de Menezes   (b. 1942)            ADI; 2001:
                             (1st time)                                              MDFM-PL
16 Jul 2003 - 23 Jul 2003  Fernando Pereira                    (b. 1963?)            Mil
                             (chairman Military Junta of National Salvation)
23 Jul 2003 -  3 Sep 2011  Fradique Melo Bandeira de Menezes   (s.a.)                MDFM-PL
                             (2nd time)
 3 Sep 2011 -              
Manuel Pinto da Costa (2nd timne)   (s.a.)                Non-party


Prime ministers 

21 Dec 1974 - 12 Jul 1975  Leonel Mário d'Alva                 (s.a.)                MLSTP
12 Jul 1975 -  9 Apr 1979  Miguel dos Anjos da Cunha Lisboa    (s.a.)                MLSTP
                             Trovoada
 9 Apr 1979 -  8 Jan 1988  Post abolished
 8 Jan 1988 -  7 Feb 1991  Celestino Rocha da Costa            (b. 1938)             MLSTP
 7 Feb 1991 - 16 May 1992  Daniel Lima dos Santos Daio         (b. 1947)             PCD-GR
16 May 1992 -  2 Jul 1994  Norberto José d'Alva Costa Alegre   (b. 1951)             PCD-GR
 7 Jul 1994 - 25 Oct 1994  Evaristo do Espírito Santo          (b. 1942)             PCD-GR/
                             Carvalho (1st time)                                     Non-party
25 Oct 1994 - 15 Aug 1995  Carlos Alberto Monteiro Dias        (b. 1931 - d. 2013)   MLSTP-PSD
                             da Graça (1st time)         
15 Aug 1995 - 21 Aug 1995  Vacant
21 Aug 1995 - 31 Dec 1995  Carlos Alberto Monteiro Dias        (s.a.)                MLSTP-PSD
                             da Graça (2nd time)
31 Dec 1995 - 19 Nov 1996  Armindo Vaz d'Almeida               (b. 1953)             MLSTP-PSD
19 Nov 1996 -  5 Jan 1999  Raul Wagner Bragança Neto           (b. 1946)             MLSTP-PSD
 5 Jan 1999 - 18 Sep 2001  Guilherme Posser de Costa           (b. 1953)             MLSTP-PSD
26 Sep 2001 - 28 Mar 2002  Evaristo do Espírito Santo          (s.a.)                ADI
                             Carvalho (2nd time)
28 Mar 2002 -  7 Oct 2002  Gabriel Arcanjo Ferreira da Costa   (b. 1954)             Non-party
                             (1st time)
 7 Oct 2002 - 16 Jul 2003  Maria das Neves Ceita Baptista      (b. 1958)             MLSTP-PSD
                             de Sousa (f) (1st time)
16 Jul 2003 - 23 Jul 2003  Vacant
23 Jul 2003 - 18 Sep 2004  Maria das Neves Ceita Baptista      (s.a.)                MLSTP-PSD
                             de Sousa (f) (2nd time)
18 Sep 2004 -  8 Jun 2005  Damião Vaz d'Almeida                (b. 1951)             MLSTP-PSD
 8 Jun 2005 - 21 Apr 2006  Maria do Carmo Trovoada Pires de    (b. 1961)             MLSTP-PSD
                             Carvalho Silveira (f)
21 Apr 2006 - 14 Feb 2008  Tomé Soares da Vera Cruz            (b. 1953)             MDFM-PL
14 Feb 2008 - 22 Jun 2008  Patrice Emery
Trovoada (1st time)   (b. 1962)             ADI
22 Jun 2008 - 14 Aug 2010  Joaquim Rafael Branco               (b. 1953)             MLSTP-PSD
14 Aug 2010 - 12 Dec 2012
 Patrice Emery Trovoada (2nd time)   (s.a.)                ADI
12 Dec 2012 -             
Gabriel Arcanjo Ferreira da Costa   (s.a.)                MLSTP-PSD
                             (2nd time)


Party abbreviations: ADI = Acção Democrática Independente (Independent Democratic Action, centrist, est.1994); MDFM-PL = Movimento Democrático das Forças da Mudança-Partido Liberal (Force for Change Democratic Movement-Liberal Party, est.2001); MLSTP-PSD = Movimento de Libertação de São Tomé e Príncipe-Partido Social Democrata (Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé e Príncipe-Democratic Socialist Party, democratic socialist, 1975-1990 named MLSTP, est.1960); PCD = Partido de Convergência Democrática (Democratic Convergence Party, split from MLSTP-PSD, former PCD-GR, est.2001); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: MDFM-PCD = Movimento Democrático Força da Mudança-Partido de Convergência Democrática (Force for Change Democratic Movement-Democratic Convergence Party, electoral coalition, 2002-May 2008); MLSTPMovimento de Libertação de São Tomé e Príncipe (Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé e Príncipe, socialist -only legal party 12 Dec 1975 - Aug 1990, renamed Oct 1990 MLSTP-PSD, 1960-1990); PCD-GR = Partido de Convergência Democrática-Grupa de Reflexão (Democratic Convergence Party-Reflection Group, split from MLSTP-PSD, 1990-2001, renamed PCD)



Príncipe

  [Autonomous Region of
              Príncipe (São Tomé and Príncipe)]
                             Adopted Apr 2011

Map of Príncipe
Capital: Santo António 
Regional Holiday :
29 Apr (1995)
Autonomy Day

Population: 5,875 (2008)

17 Jan 1471                Discovered and claimed for Portugal, named Santo António (Antão)
1500 - 1753                Separate Portuguese colony (donataria) under the Carneiro family.
1502                       Renamed Príncipe.
 9 Aug 1598 - 26 Nov 1598  Dutch occupation of Príncipe. 
29 Oct 1753                Confiscated by the Portuguese crown.
1753                       United with São Tomé to form colony of 
                             São Tomé and Príncipe (s.a.).
29 Apr 1995                Autonomous Region of Príncipe.
 

Donataries
1500 -  3 Apr 1545         Ant
ónio Carneiro, senhor de Vimioso (b. 1459 - d. 1545)
1545 - 15..                Francisco de Alcaçova Carneiro     
(b. c.1500 - d. 15..)
15.. - 16..                Luiz Carneiro                       (b. c.1530 - d. ....)  
16.. - 1640                Francisco Carneiro                  (b. c.1570 - d. 1640)  
1640 - 1690                Luis Carneiro de Sousa,             (b. 1610 - d. 1690)
                             (from 4 Feb 1640) conde da Ilha
                             do Pr
íncipe
1690 - Jan 1708            Francisco Luis Carneiro de Sousa,   (b. 1640 - d. 1708)
                             conde da Ilha do Príncipe
1708 -  6 Nov 1724         Ant
ónio Carneiro de Sousa,          (b. 1680 - d. 1724)
                             conde da Ilha do Príncipe
1724 - 18 Nov 1731         Francisco Carneiro de Sousa,        (b. 1709 - d. 1731)
                             conde da Ilha do Príncipe
1731 - 29 Oct 1753         Carlos Carneiro de Sousa e Faro,
    (b. 1710 - d. 1770)
                             conde da Ilha do Príncipe
e
                             conde de Lumiares          

Captains of the Donataries
1500 - 1515                Vasco Carneiro
1515 - 1517                Diogo Alcaçova
1517 - 15..                João Fialho
 
 9 Aug 1598 - 26 Nov 1598  Cornelis de Moucheron -Dutch commander
c.1725                     Antonio Franco Português
c.1731                     João Fernandes Lemos
15.. - 29 Oct 1753         ....

Governors
c.1851                     Francisco Ferreira Coelho Cintra
c.1852                     Manuel Francisco Landolph
c.1852 - 185.              Manuel Mariano Ghira
c.1854 - 1857              Joaquim José de Sousa Osório Menezes
c.1857 – 1860              João Manuel de Melo
c.1862                     João Filipe de Gouveia 
Presidents of the Regional Government
29 Apr 1995 - 12 Apr 2002  Damião Vaz d'Almeida                (b. 1951)            MLSTP-PSD
12 Apr 2002 - 20 Jun 2006  Zeferino dos Prazeres               (b. 1960)            MLSTP-PSD
20 Jun 2006 -  5 Oct 2006  João Paulo Cassandra (provisional)  (b. 1961)            Non-party
 5 Oct 2006 -              José Cardoso dos Ramos Cassandra    (b. 1964)            UMPP
 

Party abbreviations: MLSTP-PSDMovimento de Libertação de São Tomé e Príncipe-Partido Social Democrata (Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé e Príncipe-Social Democratic Party, democratic socialist, est.1960); UMPP = União para Mudança e Progresso do Príncipe (Union for Change and Progress of Príncipe, Príncipe electoral coalition, supported by all parties except MLSTP-PSD)






© Ben Cahoon