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Samoa 
 
[Kingdom of Samoa, c.1858-
                                    c.1873]
                     c.1858 - c.1873
 
[Kingdom of Samoa,
                                      c.1873-1875]
                      c.1873 - 1875
[Kingdom of Samoa, 1875-1886,
                                      1889-1900]
         1875 - 1886, 1889 - 1 Mar 1900
[Kingdom of Samoa,
                                      1886-1889]
                   28 Jan 1886 - 1889
 
[German Empire 1870-1919
                                      (Germany)]
               1 Mar 1900 - 29 Aug 1914
 
[Flag
                                      of New Zealand]
                  29 Aug 1914 - 25 Jan 1925
[Western Samoa Colonial
                                      Ensign 1925-1948]
                       25 Jan 1925 - 1 Jun 1948
 
[Western Samoa flag 1948-49]
                   1 Jun 1948 - 14 Feb 1949

[Independent State of Samoa
                                    (formerly Western Samoa)]
                      Adopted 14 Feb 1949
Map of Samoa
Hear National Anthem
"O le Fu'a o le Sa'olotoga
 o Samoa"

(The Banner of Freedom) 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1 Jan 1962
Constitution
(1 Jan 1962)
Capital: Apia
Currency: Tala (WST)
National Holiday: 1 Jun (1962)
Independence Day
Population: 195,746 (2013)
GDP: $1.14 billion (2013)
Exports: $11.4 million (2011)
Imports: $318.7 million (2011)
Ethnic groups: Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians 7%
(European and Polynesian mix), Europeans 0.4% (2001)
Total Police Force: 500 (2012)
Informal defense ties exist with New Zealand
Merchant marine: 2 ships (2010)
Religions: Protestant 57.4% (Congregationalist 31.8%, Methodist
 13.7%, Assembly of God 8%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3.9%),
Roman Catholic 19.4%, Mormon 15.2%, Worship Centre 1.7%, other
 Christian 5.5%, other 0.7%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.1% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, APM, C, CCM, CTBT, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NPT, OPCW, PC, PIF, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Samoa
Chronology

13 Jun 1722                Discovered by Dutch Capt. Jacob Roggeveen.
 5 May 1768                Revisited by French Capt. Louis-Antoine de 
                             Bougainville, named Iles Navigateurs (Navigator
                             Islands).
1847                       Britain opens a consular office in Apia.
1853                       United States opens a consular office in Apia.
1861                       Prussia/Germany opens a consular office in Apia.
 2 Nov 1871                New Zealand government recommends British 
                             annexation of the Samoa Islands.
 2 Mar 1872                U.S. is granted a coaling station in Pago Pago.
Aug 1873                   Inauguration of central government.
13 Feb 1878                U.S. Treaty of Friendship with Tutuila and Aunu'u
                             Islands.
21 Jan 1879                Germany granted the naval base of Saluafuta.
 5 Nov 1884                King Malietoa Laupepa and Vice-King Tupua 
                             Tamasese Titiamaea petition U.K. Queen Victoria
                             to make Samoa a British colony.
14 Jul 1889                Tripartite German-UK-U.S. protectorate
                             (see Samoa).
 2 Oct 1873                Kingdom of Samoa 
 7 Nov 1889                Tripartite German-British-U.S. protectorate¹
10 Jun 1899                Provisional government consisting of the consuls
                             of Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United
                             States.
 1 Mar 1900                Archipelago annexed by Germany (except for the 
                             part that is to become American Samoa) the 
                             German emperor is styled Tupu Sili o Samoa
                             ("Paramount King of Samoa").
29 Aug 1914                New Zealand occupation.
28 Jun 1919                Germany formally renounces claims to the islands.
17 Dec 1920                League of Nations mandate (administered by New 

                             Zealand), renamed Western Samoa.
25 Jan 1947                United Nations trust territory (s.a.).
 1 Jan 1962                Independence from New Zealand
                             (Independent State of Western Samoa).
 4 Jul 1997                Independent State of Samoa

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Note: Status in traditional Samoan society depended on the possession of one or 
several chiefly titles (the tradition continues in a sense to this day). The title
with the highest status is Tui Manu'a. The holders of this title lived on the Manu'a
Islands in what is now American Samoa. The highest titles in the rest of the Samoan
islands were Tui A'ana, Tui Atua, and Malietoa. A person holding at the same time the
Tui A'ana and Tui Atua titles, together with two specified lesser titles, was 
traditionally entitled to be styled 'O le Tupu o Samoa, conventionally translated as 
King of Samoa; this combination occurred only sporadically. The record below shows the
last few traditional 'O le Tupu o Samoa, and then the centralized government, whose 
head was conventionally also styled 'O le Tupu o Samoa.
 

Kings (title 'O le Tupu o Samoa)
.... - ....                Tupua I'amafana
.... - ....                Lei'ataua Tonumaipe'a Tamafaiga
                            "Tupu o Salafai"
.... - ....                Mata'afa Filisounu'u
1830 - 1842                Malietoa Vai'inupo Tavita 
                            "Tupu o Salafai"
Aug 1873 - 1875            Ta'imua (Council of 7)
                             [membership not available]
1875                       Ta'imua (Council of 14)
                             [only titles available, with two exceptions]
                           - Tagaloa Apela
                           - Fuataga
                           - Misa
                           - Lemana
                           - Samoa
                           - Mata'afa
                           - Taupa'u Sailusi
                           - Letufuga
                           - 'Aufa'i
                           - Lavea
                           - Asiata
                           - Ti'a
                           - Tuia
                           - Mata'utia
1875                       Malietoa Laupepa (1st time)        (b. 1841 - d. 1898)
                           + Pulepule
1875 - 22 May 1875         Ta'imua (Council of 14)
                             [the same members as the preceding Council of 14]
22 May 1875 - 1876         Malietoa Laupepa (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1876 - May 1879            Ta'imua (Council of 14)
                             [membership not available]
May 1879 -  8 Nov 1880     Malietoa Tonumaipe'a Talavou       (d. 1880)
Nov 1880 - 25 Aug 1887     Malietoa Laupepa (3rd time)        (s.a.)
                             (regent to 12 Jul 1881)
Jan 1887 - 1889            Tupua Tamasese Titiamaea 
                             (from 1888, Tupua Tamasese Malietoa Titiamaea)
                             (initially in rebellion)
1889 -  5 Dec 1889         Tupua Malietoa To'oa Mata'afa      (b. 1832 - d. 1912) 
                             Iosefo (1st time) 
                            (chairman provisional Council of Chiefs to Oct 1889)
 5 Dec 1889 - 22 Jun 1898  Malietoa Laupepa (4th time)        (s.a.)
22 Jun 1898 - 31 Dec 1898  William Lee Chambers               (b. 1852 - d. 1933) 
                             (President of the Supervisory Committee)
12 Nov 1898 -  4 Jan 1899  Tupua Malietoa To'oa Mata'afa      (s.a.)
                             Iosefo (2nd time) (in rebellion) 
31 Dec 1898 -  4 Jan 1899  Malietoa Tanumafili I (1st time)   (b. 1879 - d. 1939)
 4 Jan 1899 - 23 Mar 1899  Tupua Malietoa To'oa Mata'afa      (s.a.) 
                             Iosefo (3rd time) 
                             (chairman Provisional Government)
23 Mar 1899 - 10 Jun 1899  Malietoa Tanumafili I (2nd time)   (s.a.)
23 Mar 1899 - 10 Jun 1899  Tupua Malietoa To'oa Mata'afa      (s.a.)
                             Iosefo (4th time)(in rebellion)
10 Jun 1899 -  1 Mar 1900  Provisional Government
                           - Friedrich Rose (German Consul)   (b. 1855 - d. 1922)
                           - Ernest George Berkeley Maxse     (b. 1863 - d. 1943)
                              (British Consul)(to 23 Jun 1899)
                           - Nair (acting)(British consul) 
                              (from 23 Jun 1899)
                           - Luther Wood Osborn (U.S. Consul) (b. 1843 - d. 1901)
Paramount King (title Tupu Sili o Samoa)
 1 Mar 1900 - 29 Aug 1914  Wilhelm II                         (b. 1859 - d. 1941)
Governors
 1 Mar 1900 - 19 Dec 1911  Wilhelm Heinrich Solf              (b. 1862 - d. 1936)
19 Dec 1911 - 29 Aug 1914  Erich Schultz-Ewerth               (b. 1870 - d. 1935)
                             (acting to 19 Jun 1912)
Administrators
29 Aug 1914 - 28 Jan 1919  Robert Logan                       (b. 1863 - d. 1935)
28 Jan 1919 - 16 Mar 1923  Robert Ward Tate                   (b. 1864 - d. 1938)
16 Mar 1923 -  8 Apr 1928  George Spafford Richardson         (b. 1868 - d. 1938)
                             (from 3 Jun 1925, Sir George Spafford Richardson)
 5 May 1928 -  3 Apr 1931  Stephen Shepard Allen              (b. 1882 - d. 1964)
18 Apr 1931 - 1935         Herbert Ernest Hart                (b. 1882 - d. 1968)
25 Jul 1935 - 1946         Alfred Clarke Turnbull             (b. 1881 - d. 1962)
                             (from 1942, Sir Alfred Clarke Turnbull) 
                             (acting to 1943)
1946 - 1948                Francis William Voelcker           (b. 1896 - d. 1954)
High Commissioners
1948 - 1949                Francis William Voelcker           (s.a.)
Mar 1949 - Feb 1960        Guy Richardson Powles              (b. 1905 - d. 1994)
Feb 1960 - 31 Dec 1961     John Bird Wright                   (b. 1909 - d. 1990)
                             (acting to Jun 1960)
Heads of state (O le Ao o le Malo)
 1 Jan 1962 -  5 Apr 1963  Malietoa Tanumafili II (1st time)  (b. 1913 - d. 2007)
                           + Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole           (b. 1905 - d. 1963)
 5 Apr 1963 - 11 May 2007  Malietoa Tanumafili II (2nd time)  (s.a.)
11 May 2007 - 20 Jun 2007  Council of Deputies (acting)
                           - Tuimaleali'ifano Va'aletoa       (b. 1947)
                               Sualauvi II
                           - Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi       (b. 1938)
20 Jun 2007 -              Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi         (s.a.)

Prime ministers
22 May 1875 -  8 Feb 1876  Albert Barnes Steinberger          (b. 1840 - d. 1894)  Non-party
 8 Feb 1876 -  1 Oct 1959  Post abolished
 1 Oct 1959 - 25 Feb 1970  Mata'afa Mulinu'u II (1st time)    (b. 1921 - d. 1975)  Non-party
25 Feb 1970 - 20 Mar 1973  Tupua Tamasese Lealofi IV          (b. 1922 - d. 1983)  Non-party
                             (1st time)
20 Mar 1973 - 20 May 1975  Mata'afa Mulinu'u II (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Non-party
21 May 1975 - 24 Mar 1976  Tupua Tamasese Lealofi IV          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)(acting) 
24 Mar 1976 - 13 Apr 1982  Tupuola Taisi Tufuga Efi (1st time)(s.a.)               Non-party
                             (= Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi)
13 Apr 1982 - 18 Sep 1982  Va'ai Kolone (1st time)            (b. 1911 - d. 2001)  HRPP
18 Sep 1982 - 31 Dec 1982  Tupuola Taisi Tufuga Efi (2nd time)(s.a.)               Non-party
31 Dec 1982 - 30 Dec 1985  Tofilau Eti Alesana (1st time)     (b. 1921 - d. 1999)  HRPP
30 Dec 1985 -  8 Apr 1988  Va'ai Kolone (2nd time)            (s.a.)               HRPP
 8 Apr 1988 - 23 Nov 1998  Tofilau Eti Alesana (2nd time)     (s.a.)               HRPP
23 Nov 1998 -              Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi       (b. 1945)            HRPP
                             (from 2004, Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele
                             Malielegaoi; from 2006, Tuilaepa
                             Lupesoliai Sailele Malielegaoi)  
 

Chief Justices¹
 2 Jan 1891 -  3 Nov 1893  Conrad Cedercrantz (Sweden)        (b. 1854 - d. 1932)
 3 Nov 1893 - 1897         Henry Clay Ide (U.S.)              (b. 1844 - d. 1921)
1897 - Jul 1899            William Lea Chambers (U.S.)        (s.a.)
Jul 1899 -  1 Mar 1900     Luther Wood Osborn (U.S.) (acting) (s.a.)

 ¹An important position under the tripartite protectorate was held by the chief justice, 
who had the power to decide "any question ... respecting the rightful appointment and 
election of Kings or any other Chief claiming authority over the islands, or respecting 
the validity of the power which the King or any Chief may claim in the exercise of his 
office." The chief justice was named by agreement of the three powers, or, failing their agreement, by the king of Sweden.

Party abbreviation: HRPP = Human Rights Protection Party (centrist, est.1979);
- Former parties:
CDP = Christian Democratic Party (1985-1988)







 © Ben Cahoon