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Liberia
 
[Old
                                    flag of Liberia]
              9 Apr 1827 - 16 Jul 1847 
 
[Flag of
                                    Liberia]
                     Adopted 16 Jul 1847
 
 Map of Liberia Hear National Anthem
"All Hail, Liberia Hail!" 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 26 Jul 1847
(music 1860)
Constitution
 (6 Jan 1986)
Capital: Monrovia
(Thompson Town 1821-24)
Currency: Liberian Dollar 
(LRD) 
National Holiday: 26 Jul (1847) 
Independence Day
Population: 3,989,703 (2013)
GDP: $2.89 billion (2013)
Exports: $929.8 million (2013)
Imports: $2.45 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Kpelle 20.3%, Bassa 13.4%, Grebo 10%,
Gio 8%, Mano 7.9%, Kru 6%, Lorma 5.1%, Kissi 4.8%,
Gola 4.4%, other 20.1% (2008)
Total Active Armed Forces: 2,400 (2010)
UN Peacekeepers: 7,432  (2013)
Merchant marine: 2,771ships (2010)
Religions: Christian 85.6%, Muslim 12.2%,
Traditional 0.6%, other 0.2%, none 1.4% (2008)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC (signatory), CCM (signatory), CEN-SAD, CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS, ENMOD (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU (suspended), IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, UNWTO, WAMZ, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Liberia Index
Chronology
 
1364 - 1413                French Norman adventurers establish the trading
                             posts of Grand Dieppe and Petit Dieppe in
                             the area, settlements are partly legendary.
1461                       Portuguese navigator Pedro de Sintra names
                             the area the Grain Coast.
1663 - 1664                English establish trading posts on the Grain 
                             Grain at Mesurado and Grand Sesters, but 
                             these are destroyed by the Dutch.
15 Dec 1821                Cape Mesurado Colony created by the American 
                             Society for Colonizing the Free People of
                             Color in the United States (or American 
                             Colonization Society).
15 Aug 1824                Cape Mesurado expanded into the Colony
                             of Liberia.
 5 Apr 1839                Commonwealth of Liberia
26 Jul 1847                Independence (Republic of Liberia).
1848                       Independence recognized by U.K. (France, 1852).
21 Oct 1862                Independence recognized by the U.S.
1892 - 1911                Boundaries officially established.
Counties
Edina
(1832-1837)
Maryland
(1834-1857)
Mississippi-in-Africa
(1835-1839)
New Georgia
(1824-1839)
  Port Cresson/
Bassa Cove

(1832-1839)
Former Liberian
Constitutions
(1820,
 5 Jan 1839,

26 Jul 1847) 
 

Colonial Agents
15 Dec 1821 - 25 Apr 1822  Eli Ayres                          (b. 1778 - d. 1822)
25 Apr 1821 -  4 Jun 1822  Frederick James (acting)
 4 Jun 1822 -  8 Aug 1822  Elijah Johnson (1st time)(acting)  (b. 1787 - d. 1849)
 8 Aug 1822 -  2 Apr 1823  Jehudi Ashmun (1st time)(acting)   (b. 1794 - d. 1828)
 2 Apr 1823 - 14 Aug 1823  Elijah Johnson (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.)
14 Aug 1823 - 26 Mar 1828  Jehudi Ashmun (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                             (acting to 22 Aug 1822)
26 Mar 1828 -  8 Nov 1828  Lott Carey (acting)                (b. c.1780 - d. 1828)
 8 Nov 1828 - 22 Dec 1828  Colston Waring (acting)            (b. 1793 - d. 1834) 
22 Dec 1828 - 19 Apr 1829  Richard Randall                    (b. 1796 - d. 1829)
19 Apr 1829 - 27 Feb 1830  Joseph Mechlin, Jr. (1st time)     (d. 1839)
                             (acting to 14 Sep 1829)
27 Feb 1830 - 12 Apr 1830  John Anderson (acting)
13 Apr 1830 -  4 Dec 1830  Anthony Williams (1st time)(acting)(d. 1861)
 4 Dec 1830 - 24 Sep 1833  Joseph Mechlin, Jr. (2nd time)     (s.a.) 
24 Sep 1833 -  1 Jan 1834  George R. McGill (acting)          (b. 1787 - d. 1863?)
 1 Jan 1834 - 10 May 1835  John Piney                         (b. 1806 - d. 1882)
10 May 1835 - 12 Aug 1835  Nathaniel Brander (acting)         (b. 1796 - d. 18..)
12 Aug 1835 - 25 Sep 1836  Ezekiel Skinner                    (b. 1777 - d. 1885)
25 Sep 1836 -  1 Apr 1839  Anthony Williams (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Governors
 1 Apr 1839 -  3 Sep 1841  Thomas Buchanan                    (b. 1808 - d. 1841)
 3 Sep 1841 -  3 Jan 1848  Joseph Jenkins Roberts             (b. 1809 - d. 1876)  AP
                             (acting to 20 Jan 1842)
Presidents
 3 Jan 1848 -  7 Jan 1856  Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1st time)  (s.a.)               AP
 7 Jan 1856 -  4 Jan 1864  Stephen Allen Benson               (b. 1816 - d. 1865)  AP
 4 Jan 1864 -  6 Jan 1868  Daniel Bashiel Warner              (b. 1815 - d. 1880)  AP
 6 Jan 1868 -  3 Jan 1870  James Spriggs Payne (1st time)     (b. 1819 - d. 1882)  RP
 3 Jan 1870 - 26 Oct 1871  Edward James Roye                  (b. 1815 - d. 1872)  TWP
26 Oct 1871 -  4 Nov 1871  Chief Executive Committee
                           - Charles Benedict Dunbar          (b. c.1831 - d. 1878)
                           - Reginald A. Sherman              (b. 1838 - d. 1894)
                           - Amos Herring                     (b. c.1794 - d. 1873)
 4 Nov 1871 -  1 Jan 1872  James Skivring Smith               (b. 1825 - d.c.1892) TWP
 1 Jan 1872 -  3 Jan 1876  Joseph Jenkins Roberts (2nd time)  (s.a.)               RP
 3 Jan 1876 -  7 Jan 1878  James Spriggs Payne (2nd time)     (s.a.)               RP
 7 Jan 1878 - 20 Jan 1883  Anthony William Gerdner            (b. 1820 - d. 1885)  TWP
20 Jan 1883 -  7 Jan 1884  Alfred Francis Russell             (b. 1817 - d. 1884)  TWP
 7 Jan 1884 -  4 Jan 1892  Hilary Richard Wright Johnson      (b. 1837 - d. 1901)  TWP
 4 Jan 1892 - 12 Nov 1896  Joseph James Cheeseman             (b. 1843 - d. 1896)  TWP
12 Nov 1896 - 11 Dec 1900  William David Coleman              (b. 1842 - d. 1908)  TWP
11 Dec 1900 -  4 Jan 1904  Garretson Wilmot Gibson            (b. 1832 - d. 1910)  TWP
                             (acting to 6 Jan 1902)
 4 Jan 1904 -  1 Jan 1912  Arthur Barclay                     (b. 1854 - d. 1938)  TWP
 1 Jan 1912 -  5 Jan 1920  Daniel Edward Howard               (b. 1861 - d. 1935)  TWP
 5 Jan 1920 -  3 Dec 1930  Charles Dunbar Burgess King        (b. 1871 - d. 1961)  TWP
 3 Dec 1930 -  3 Jan 1944  Edwin James Barclay                (b. 1882 - d. 1955)  TWP
                             (acting to 4 Jan 1932) 
 3 Jan 1944 - 23 Jul 1971  William Vacanarat Shadrach Tubman  (b. 1895 - d. 1971)  TWP
23 Jul 1971 - 12 Apr 1980  William Richard Tolbert, Jr.       (b. 1913 - d. 1980)  TWP
12 Apr 1980 -  9 Sep 1990  Samuel Kanyon Doe                  (b. 1951 - d. 1990) Mil:1984 NDP
                             (chairman People's Redemption Council to 25 Jul 1984,
                             then Head of state; from 6 Jan 1986, President)
 9 Sep 1990 - 22 Nov 1990  Conflicting claims
                           - Prince Yormie Johnson            (b. 1952)            INPFL
                             (9 Sep 1990 - 1990, President)
                           - Charles G. Taylor (in Gbarnga)   (b. 1948)            NPFL
                             (from 27 Jul 1990, head of the provisional
                              government; from 21 Oct 1990, President)
                           - David Nimley                     (b. 1945)            Mil/NDP
                             (from 9 Sep 1990, head of ruling council of state)
President of the Interim Government of National Unity
 2 Sep 1990 -  7 Mar 1994  Amos Claudius Sawyer               (b. 1945)            LPP
                             (in exile to 22 Nov 1990)
Chairmen of the Council of State

 7 Mar 1994 -  1 Sep 1995  David Donald Kpormakor             (b. 1944 - d. 2010)  Non-party
 1 Sep 1995 -  3 Sep 1996  Wilton G.S. Sankawulo              (b. 1943 - d. 2009)  Non-party
 3 Sep 1996 -  2 Aug 1997  Ruth Sando Perry (f)               (b. 1939)           UP/Non-party
Presidents
 2 Aug 1997 - 11 Aug 2003  Charles G. Taylor                  (s.a.)               NPP
11 Aug 2003 - 14 Oct 2003  Moses Zeh Blah                     (b. 1947 - d. 2013)  NPP
Chairman of the National Transitional Government
14 Oct 2003 - 16 Jan 2006  Charles Gyude Bryant               (b. 1949 - d. 2014)  LAP
President
16 Jan 2006 -              Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf (f)          (b. 1938)            UP
 

Territorial Disputes: Although civil unrest continues to abate with the assistance of 18,000 UN Mission in Liberia peacekeepers, as of Jan 2007, Liberian refugees still remain in Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, and Ghana; Liberia, in turn, shelters refugees fleeing turmoil in Cote d'Ivoire; despite the presence of over 9,000 UN forces in Cote d'Ivoire since 2004, ethnic conflict continues to spread into neighboring states who can no longer send their migrant workers to Ivorian cocoa plantations; UN sanctions ban Liberia from exporting diamonds and timber.

Party abbreviations: LPP = Liberian People's Party (est.1985); NDP = National Democratic Party of Liberia (formed by Doe supporters, est.1984); NPP = National Patriotic Party (authoritarian, Taylor supporters, est.1997); UP = Unity Party (centrist, est.1985); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: AP = Administration Party (former Amer. Colon. Soc. leaders, 1840-1867); INPFL = Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (split from NPFL, Prince Johnson personalist, 1990-1992); LAP = Liberian Action Party (1985-2009, merged into UP); RP = Republican Party (democratic, TWP opponent, 1867-1876); NPFL = National Patriotic Front of Liberia (anti-Doe militant group, 1998-1997, becomes NPP); TWP = True Whig Party (government party 1878-1980, Americo-Liberian, 1869-1980)



Edina
 
Capital: Edina
Population: N/A

1832                       Edina colony of the New York and Pennsylvania
                             Colonization Societies.

1837                       Incorporation into Bassa Cove.

Superintendent
1832 - 1837                William L. Weaver                  (b. 1796? - d. 1852)



Maryland in Africa
[Former Republic of
                  Maryland]
             29 May 1854 - 18 Mar 1857
Capital: Harper
Population: N/A

12 Feb 1834                Maryland-in-Africa colony of the Maryland State
                             Colonization Society.
 2 Feb 1841                State of Maryland in Liberia
29 May 1854                Independence (Independent State of Maryland in Liberia).
18 Mar 1857                Incorporation into Liberia (as Maryland county).

Governors
12 Feb 1834 - Feb 1836     James Hall                         (b. 1802 - d. 1889)
Feb 1836 -  1 Jul 1836     Oliver W. Holmes, Jr. (acting)
 1 Jul 1836 - 28 Sep 1836  Three-Man Committee
28 Sep 1836 -  9 Jun 1851  John Brown Russwurm                (b. 1799 - d. 1851)
                             (in some sources John Baptist Russwurm)
 9 Jun 1851 -  8 Jun 1854  Samuel Ford McGill                 (b. 1818 - d. 1871)
                             (acting to 1852)
 8 Jun 1854 - Dec 1855     William Allen Prout                (d. 1856)
Dec 1855 - 18 Mar 1857     Boston Jenkins Drayton             (b. c.1821 - d. 1864)
                             (acting to Jun 1856)



Mississippi-in-Africa
 
Capital: Greenville
(Sinoe 1835-38)
Population: N/A

1835                       Mississippi-in-Africa colony of the Mississippi
                             and Louisiana State Colonization Societies.
1839                       Incorporation into Liberia (as Sinoe county from 1842).

Governors
1835 - 1837                Vacant
Jun 1837 - 10 Sep 1838     Josiah F.C. Finley                 (d. 1838)
1838 - 1839                Thomas Buchanan
                   (b. 1808 - d. 1841)



New Georgia
 
Capital: Congo Town
Population: N/A

1824                       U.S. government settles New Georgia with African recaptives
                             (slaves rescued in mid-ocean).
 1 Apr 1839                Incorporation into Liberia. 

Superintendents
1824 -  1 Apr 1839         ....
c.1834                     James Battan



Port Cresson/Bassa Cove 
 
Capital: Port Cresson
(Bassa Cove 1832-35)
Population: N/A

Dec 1832                   Port Cresson colony of the Black Quakers of the New York
                             and Pennsylvania Colonization Societies.
Jun 1835                   Colony destroyed by Bassa natives.
Jul 1835                   Bassa Cove colony.
1837                       Edina settlement annexed.
 1 Apr 1839                Incorporation into Liberia.

Governors
Dec 1832 - Dec 1833        Edward Y. Hankinson (1st time)
31 Dec 1833 - May 1834     Rufus Spalding 
1834                       Israel W. Searle (agent)          (d. 1834) 
1834 - Jun 1835            Edward Y. Hankinson (2nd time)

Chief Magistrates
Jul 1835 - Jan 1836        Edward Y. Hankinson

Jan 1836 -  4 Aug 1837     Thomas Buchanan                   (b. 1808 - d. 1841)
 4 Aug 1837 - Jun 1838     John J. Matthias                  (d. 1861)
Jun 1838 -  1 Apr 1839     Wesley Johnson (acting)







Ben Cahoon