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Eritrea
 
[Ottoman
                                    flag]
to 6 Feb 1885
 
[Kingdom of Italy Flag]
5 Jul 1882 - 5 May 1941
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
5 May 1941 - 15 Sep 1952
 
[Flag
                                    of Ethiopia]
15 Sep 1952 - 24 May 1993
 
[Eritrea
                                    flag 1952-1958 (Ethiopia)]
 15 Sep 1952 - 23 Dec 1958
 
[Eritrean People's Liberation
                                    Front flag, 1970-1994]
29 May 1991 - 29 May 1993 in liberated area
 
[Flag of
                                    Eritrea, 1993-1995]
29 May 1993 - 5 Dec 1995

[Flag of
                                    Eritrea]
Adopted 5 Dec 1995


Map of Eritrea
Hear National Anthem
"Ertra, Ertra, Ertra"
(Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 19 May 1993
Constitution
(23 May 1997)
Capital: Asmara (Asmera)
(Massawa 1890-1935)
Currency: Nakfa (ERN);
1976-1997 Ethiopian Birr (ETB);

1945-1976 Ethiopian Dollar
(ETD);
1941-1945 East Africa
Shilling (XEAS);
 

National Holiday:
24 May (1993)

Independence Day
Population: 5,970,646 (2018)
GDP: $9.40 billion (2017)
Exports: $624.3 million (2017)
Imports: $1.123 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Tigrinya (Tigray) 55%, Tigre 30%, Saho 4%,
Kunama 2%, Rashaida 2%, Bilen 2%, other
(Afar, Beni Amir, Nera) 5% (2010)
Total Active Armed Forces: 201,750 (2010)
Merchant marine: 9 ships (2017)
Religions: Muslim (Sunni 50.3%, Shi'a 1.3%) 51.6%,
Christian 46.3% (of which Eritrean Orthodox 42.9%
, Roman
Catholic 2.3%, Protestant 1%), traditional beliefs 0.6%,
not religious and atheist 1.4% (
2015) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, AL (observer), APM, AU, CEN-SAD, COMESA, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (observer), IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IRENA, ISA (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA (signatory), UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Eritrea Index
Chronology
1557                       Massawa part of Ottoman Empire as a sanjak of
                             province (eyalet) of Habesh.
Late 16th cent.            Only a small garrison left in Massawa, Hirgigo
                            (Arkiko) is ceded to the Balaw chiefs who later
                             became na'ibs under Ottoman suzerainty.
1701                       Sanjaks of Sawakin and Massawa are merged with the
                             Hejaz province.
Dec 1813 - 1826            Occupied by Egypt (both nominally part of Ottoman 
                             Empire).
1826                       Direct Ottoman rule restored (1826-1848 Na'ibs of
                             Arkiko largely independent), Red Sea province.
1846 - 1849                Massawa under Egyptian rule.
1865 - Dec 1882            Egyptian rule (nominally part of Ottoman Empire),
                             as Red Sea province (or Missiwa); Sennaheit
                             annexed in 1873, later part of Red Sea province.
15 Nov 1869                Port of Assab purchased by the Italian Società di
                             Navigazione Rubattino, a further stretch of
                             land is acquired on 11 Mar 1870.
Mar 1870                   Egyptian government denies the Italian acquisitions
                             and claims possession.
1879 - 1890                Asmara under Ethiopian rule (named Mereb Milash).
 5 Jul 1882                Port of Assab is taken over by the Italian 
                             government.
25 Jan 1885                Italian occupation of Beilul and Gubbi.
 6 Feb 1885                Port of Massawa is taken over by Italy (annexed
                             2 Dec 1885); expansion into hinterland follows.
 9 Dec 1888                Italian Assab Protectorate (Assab, Massawa and
                             the Danakil hinterland).
 2 May 1889                Italy and Ethiopia agree on boundaries between
                             Italian colonies in East Africa and Ethiopia. 
 1 Jan 1890                Italian colony (Eritrea)
 1 Jun 1936                Part of Italian East Africa (province of Eritrea,
                             formed by the merger of the colony and the 
                             Ethiopian region of Tigre)(see Ethiopia).
22 Jan 1941                British occupation invasion beings (Keru falls
                             22 Jan 1941, Keren 27 Mar 1941, Asmara 1 Apr 1941
                             Massawa 8 Apr 1941, and Assab on 11 Jun 1941).
19 May 1941                Italian administration surrenders.
19 May 1941 - 15 Sep 1952  British administration.
19 Feb 1951                United Nations supervision, under British rule.
15 Sep 1952                Federated with Ethiopia under the sovereignty of
                             the Ethiopian crown (Eritrean Autonomous State).
 1 Sep 1961 – 29 May 1991  Eritrean war of independence.
14 Nov 1962                Declared an integral part of Ethiopia; autonomy
                             revoked (Eritrea province).
11 Feb 1990                Massawa liberated by EPLF.
24 May 1991                Asmara (and Assab 25 May 1991) liberated by EPLF.
29 May 1991                Provisional government established (de facto 
                             independence).
25 Apr 1993                Eritrean referendum 99.8% vote for independence.
24 May 1993                Independence (State of Eritrea).
Eritrean Orthodox
Church
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Walis (governors) of Massawa
bf.1687 -  ....            Musa, Na'ib of Arkiko
16.. - 1694                Mehmed Pasha
16.. - c.1694              Abaza Mustafa Pasha
16.. - c.1695              Misirli Mehmed Pasha
c.1695 - ....              Gümrükçü Siyavus Pasha
.... - ....                Süleyman Pasha?

.... - c.1793              ....

c.1793                     Ahmad Hasan, Na'ib of Arkiko
1805 - 1826                Idris bin Utman, Na'ib of Arkiko
Na'ibs of Arkiko
1690 - 1720                Amir bin Ali
1720 - 1737                Hasan Amir
1737 - 1741                Muhammad Amir
1741 - 1781                Uthman Amir
1781 - 1801                Ahmad Hasan
1801 - 1831                Idris bin Uthman

1832 - 1833                Turkci Bilmaz (in rebellion)
1833 - 1844                Yahya Ahmad                        (d. 1844)
1844 - 1847                Hasan Idris
1847 - 1849                Muhammad Yahya
1849 - 1851                Idris Hasan                        (b. 1825 - d. 1905)
Walis of Massawa
Dec 1845 - 1847?           Rustam Agha
Mar 1847 - 1848?           Ismail Haqqi Pasha
1848 - 18..                Omar Agha
1854 - 1861?               Ibrahim Pasha
1861 - 1863                Muhammad Rasikh Bey                (b. c.1834 - d. 1883)
1863 - 1865                ....
Feb 1865 - Oct 1865        Abdallah Halil Efendi
1866 - 1867                Hasan Bey Rifat
1867                       Abdalkadir
1867 - 1871                Ahmad Mumtaz Pasha (at Sawakin)    (b. 1825 - d. 1874)

                             (governor of Red Sea 1870-71)
18.. - 1871                Hajj Aman (at Massawa)
1871                      
'Ala al-Din Pasha Siddiq (1st time)(d. 1883)
1871 - 1873                Johann Albert Werner               (b. 1832 - d. 1875)

                             Munzinger Pasha
                             (governor-general of Red Sea Coast 1873-Nov 1854)
1873 - Nov 1875            Arakel Bey Abroyan                 (b. 1832 - d. 1875)
1875 - 1877                Mohammed Ratib Pasha
1877                       Uthman Rifiq Pasha                 (b. 1839 - d. 1886)
1877 - 1882               
'Ala al-Din Pasha Siddiq (2nd time)(s.a.)
1882 - Dec 1882            Khurshid Bey Pertev
1883 - 1884                Muhammad Muhtar Pasha              (b. 1835 - d. 1897)
1884                       Alexander Macomb Mason Bey         (b. 1841 - d. 1897)
1884                       William Nathan Wrighte Hewett      (b. 1834 - d. 1888)
1884 - 1885                Izzet Bey

1884 - 1885                Marcopoli Bey (acting for Izzet Bey)
Walis of Sennaheit
1877 - 1879                Franz Hassen Bey
1879 - 18..                Charles Rigolet                    (b. c.1853 - d. ....)

Ethiopian Governors of Mereb Milash
1875 - 1879                Woldemikael                        (d. c.1879)
1879 - 1890                Ras Alula                          (b. 1827 - d. 1897)
Italian Civil Commissioners of Assab
15 Nov 1869 -  9 Jan 1881  Giuseppe Sapeto (commercial agent) (b. 1811 - d. 1895) 
 9 Jan 1881 - 1885         Giovanni Branchi                   (b. 1846 - d. 1936) 
Commandants of Assab
Dec 1879 - Jul 1880        Carlo De Amezaga                   (b. 1835 - d. 1899)
 5 Jul 1880 - 1884         Giovanni Galeazzo Frigerio         (b. 1841 - d. 1921)
1884 - 1890                Giulio Pestalozza                  (b. 1850 - d. 1930)
Commandants of Massawa
 5 Feb 1885 - 26 Feb 1885  Pietro Caimi                       (b. 1830 - d. 1886)
26 Feb 1885 - 13 Nov 1885  Tancredi Saletta (1st time)        (b. 1843 - d. 1909)
13 Nov 1885 - 23 Apr 1887  Carlo Gené (superior commandant)   (b. 1836 - d. 1890)
23 Apr 1887 -  9 Nov 1887  Tancredi Saletta (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 9 Nov 1887 -  2 May 1888  Alessandro Asinari di San Marzano  (b. 1830 - d. 1906)
 3 May 1888 - 24 Dec 1889  Antonio Baldissera                 (b. 1838 - d. 1917)
24 Dec 1889 -  4 Jun 1890  Baldassare Orero                   (b. 1832 - d. 1914)
Governors
 4 Jun 1890 - 28 Feb 1892  Antonio Gandolfi                   (b. 1835 - d. 1902)
28 Feb 1892 -  3 Mar 1896  Oreste Baratieri                   (b. 1841 - d. 1901)
 4 Mar 1896 - 21 Mar 1897  Antonio Baldissera                 (s.a.)
21 Mar 1897 - 16 Dec 1897
  Giuseppe Ettore Viganò (acting)    (b. 1842 - d. 1933)
16 Dec 1897 - 25 Mar 1907  Ferdinando Martini (commissioner)  (b. 1841 - d. 1928)
25 Mar 1907 - 16 Aug 1915  Giuseppe Salvago Raggi             (b. 1866 - d. 1946)
17 Aug 1915 - 15 Sep 1916  Giovanni Cerrina Feroni            (b. 1866 - d. 1952)
                             (1st time)(acting)
16 Sep 1916 -  1 Jul 1919  Giacomo De Martino                 (b. 1849 - d. 1921)
 2 Jul 1919 - 19 Nov 1920  Camillo De Camillis (acting)
20 Nov 1920 - 13 Apr 1921  Ludovico Pollera Orsucci (acting)  (b. 1870 - d. 1953)
14 Apr 1921 -  1 Jun 1923  Giovanni Cerrina Feroni            (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
 1 Jun 1923 -  1 Jun 1928  Jacopo Gasparini                   (b. 1879 - d. 1941)
 1 Jun 1928 - 16 Jul 1930  Corrado Zoli                       (b. 1877 - d. 1951)
16 Jul 1930 - 15 Jan 1935  Riccardo Astuto dei Duchi di       (b. 1882 - d. 1952)
                             Lucchesi

15 Jan 1935 - 18 Jan 1935  Ottone Gabelli (acting)            (b. 1880 - d. 1939) 
18 Jan 1935 - 27 Nov 1935  Emilio Giuseppe Gaspar             (b. 1866 - d. 1944)
                             Giovanni De Bono 
28 Nov 1935 - 31 May 1936  Pietro Badoglio                    (b. 1871 - d. 1956)
 1 Jun 1936 -  1 Apr 1937  Alfredo Guzzoni                    (b. 1877 - d. 1965)
 1 Apr 1937 - 15 Dec 1937  Vincenzo De Feo                    (b. 1876 - d. 1955)
15 Dec 1937 -  2 Jun 1940  Giuseppe Daodice di Daodicca       (b. 1882 - d. 1952)
 2 Jun 1940 - 19 May 1941  Luigi Frusci (acting)              (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
British Military Administrators

 5 Feb 1941 -  4 May 1942  Sir William Platt                  (b. 1885 - d. 1975)  Mil
 4 May 1942 -  9 Nov 1944  Stephen Hemsley Longrigg           (b. 1893 - d. 1979)  Mil
 9 Nov 1944 - 14 Aug 1945  Charles D'Arcy McCarthy            (b. 1899 - d. 1977)  Mil
14 Aug 1945 -  1 Nov 1946  John Meredith Benoy                (b. 1896 - d. 1977)  Mil
 1 Nov 1946 - 19 Feb 1951  Francis Greville Drew              (b. 1892 - d. 1962)  Mil
UN High Commissioner
19 Feb 1951 - 15 Sep 1952  Eduardo Anze Matienzo (Bolivia)    (b. 1902 - d. 1979)  Non-party
Chief Administrator
19 Feb 1951 - 15 Sep 1952  Duncan Cameron Cumming (U.K.)      (b. 1903 - d. 1979)  Mil
Emperor's Representatives
15 Sep 1952 - Dec 1959     Bitwoded Andargachew Messai        (b. 1902 - d. 1981)  Non-party
Dec 1959 - 14 Nov 1962     Abiye Abebe                        (b. 1918 - d. 1974)  Mil
Chief Executives
15 Sep 1952 - 29 Jul 1955  Tedla Bairu                        (b. 1914 - d. 1984)  MFH
1955                       Araya Wassie (acting)                                   MFH
 8 Aug 1955 - 
14 Nov 1962  Asfaha Woldemikael                 (b. 1914 - d. 2000)  Non-party
                             (from 20 May 1960, chief administrator)
Governors-general
14 Nov 1962 - 1964         Abiye Abebe                        (s.a.)               Mil
1964 - Dec 1970            Ras Asrate Medhin Kassa            (b. 1922 - d. 1974)  Mil
Dec 1970 - Aug 1974        Debebe Haile Mariam                (d. 1974)            Mil
Aug 1974 - 1975            Ato Amanuel Amde-Michael                                Non-party?
17 Feb 1975 – Jun 1977     Getachew Nadew                     (d. 1977)            Mil
1977 - 1979                ....
1979 - 1983                Dawit Wolde-Giorgis                (b. 1940)            COPWE
198. - 18 May 1989         Afework Woldemikael                (d. 1989)            Mil
Aug 1989 - 29 May 1991     Tesfaye Gebre Kidan                (b. c.1935 - d. 2004)
Mil
Secretary-general of the Provisional Government

29 May 1991 - 24 May 1993  Isaias Afewerki                    (b. 1946)            EPLF
President
24 May 1993 -              Isaias Afewerki                    (s.a.)            EPLF;1994 PFDJ


British Deputy Chief Political Officer for Eritrea

1941 - 1942                Brian Kennedy-Cooke                (b. 1894 - d. 1963)  Mil

Territorial Disputes: Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by 2002 Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the Nov 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting eastern Sudanese rebel groups; in 2008 Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea.

Party abbreviation: PFDJ = Hizibawi Ginibari Nidemokirasini Fitihini (People's Front for Democracy and Justice, authoritarian, Eritrean nationalist, government party, former EPLF, est.Feb 1994);
- Former parties: COPWE = Ya'ityopya Sareto'adaroc Parti 'Adaraj Komisen (Commission for Organizing the Party of the Working People of Ethiopia, Marxist-Leninist communist, 12 Dec 1979 - 12 Sep 1984, becomes EWP); EPLF = Hizbawi Ginbar Harenet Ertra (Eritrean People's Liberation Front (Eritrean nationalist, armed separatist, Marxist-Leninist, 1970-1994, renamed EPFJ); EWP = Ye'itiyopiya Sheratenyochi Pariti (Worker's Party of Ethiopia, communist, 1984-1990 only legal party, on 10 Mar 1990 renounces Marxist-Leninism, 12 Sep 1984-21 May 1991); MFH = Mahber Fikri Hager (Association for Love of Country, "Unionist Party", conservative, pro-union with Ethiopia, 5 May 1941-1962) 






© Ben Cahoon