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Equatorial Guinea
 
[Spain
                                    1945-1977]
                  to 8 Oct 1968
 
[Flag of
                                    Equatorial Guinea, 1968-1969]
                  8 Oct 1968 - 1969
[Flag of
                                    Equatorial Guinea, 1969-1973]
                       1969 - 1973
 
[Flag
                                    of Equatorial Guinea, 1973-1979]
                   1973 - 21 Aug 1979
[Flag of
                                    Equatorial Guinea]
               Re-adopted 21 Aug 1979

Map of Equatorial Guinea
Hear National Anthem
"Caminemos Pisando las Sendas
de Nuestra Inmensa Felicidad"
(Let us Tread the Paths
of Our Great Happiness)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 12 Oct 1968
Constitution
(17 Nov 1991)
Capital: Malabo
(Santa Isabel 1858-1973,
Port Clarence 1827-1858
San Carlos 1778-1780;
Rio Muni: Bata 1960-1968)
Currency: Communauté
Financière Africaine
Franc (XAF); 1975-1985 Ekuele
Guineana (GQE); 1968-1975
Peseta Guineana (GQP)
National Holiday: 12 Oct (1968)
Independence Day
Population: 704,001 (2013)
GDP: $19.6 billion (2013)
Exports: $15.4 billion (2013)
Imports: $7.94 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%,
 Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 1,320 (2010)
Merchant marine: 5 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 80.1%, Muslim 4.1 %,
African Christian 3.7%, Protestant 3.2%, traditional
beliefs 2.1%, non-religious 4.9%, other 2.1%  (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BDEAC, BTWC, CEEAC, CEMAC, CPLP, CTBT (signatory), CWC, ESCR, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISA, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OPEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)
Equatorial
Guinea Index
Chronology
 
c.1472                     Bioko island sighted and claimed for Portugal
                             by Capt. Fernão do P
ó and named Ilha de Formosa,
                             later it is renamed Fernando Pó
.
 
1 Jan 1474                Annobón island sighted by Capt. Rui de Sequeira,
                             subsequently claimed for Portugal and named
                             Ilha de Ano Bom (as part of
São Tomé & Príncipe).
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Islands
along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
16 Dec 1598 –  2 Jan 1599  Dutch occupation of Annobón.
Oct 1641 - 1648            Dutch occupation of Annobón.
1642
- 1648                Dutch sporadic occupation Fernando Pó.
Apr 1662 - 1664            Dutch occupation of Annobón.
 1 Oct 1777                Ceded to Spain by the Treaty of San Ildefonso
                             (ratified 11 Oct 1777).
11 Mar 1778                Cession to Spain confirmed by Treaty of El Pardo;
                            
(ratified 24 Mar 1778)(Fernando Póo and its
                             dependencies).
24 Oct 1778                Spanish take possession
of Fernando Póo.
30 Dec 1781                Spanish withdraw.
27 Oct 1827 - 27 May 1858  British administration of Fernando Póo
                             (Malabo is named Port Clarence).
23 Feb 1843                Spain reclaims sovereignty over Fernando Póo.
15 Mar 1843                Sovereignty over Benga territory (including
                            
Corisco [Mandj], Elobey Grande and Elobey Chico
                            
islands) is ceded to Spain by treaty.
27 May 1858                Spanish navy formally takes over administration.
26 Feb 1885                Río de Muni on African mainland formally a Spanish
                             protectorate (nominally as part of Fernando Póo)
                             by the Congress of Berlin.
27 Jun 1900                France ends claims to Río de Muni and settles the
                             mainland border with Spain by the Treaty of Paris
                             (Spain is left with 26,000 km out of the 300,000
                             km initially claimed)(ratified 22 Mar 1901).
 1 Oct 1904                Spanish Territories in the Gulf of Guinea
                             (Territorios Españoles del Golfo de Guinea).
11 Aug 1926                Río Muni, Fernando Póo, and Annobón administrations
                             unified.
25 Sep 1936                Nationalists take control of Fernando Póo and (from
                             14 Oct 1936) Río Muni.
21 Aug 1956                Gulf of Guinea overseas province of Spain.
20 Aug 1959                Equatorial Region (subdivided into two provinces:
                             Fernando Póo and Río Muni).
15 Dec 1963                Plebiscite on autonomy.
 1 Jan 1964                Equatorial Guinea (self-rule).
12 Oct 1968                Independence (Republic of Equatorial Guinea).
Provinces
1959-1968
Annobón
Traditional
States
Historical Maps of
Equatorial Guinea
 
 
 
 
 
 

Governors
24 Oct 1778 - 14 Nov 1778  Felipe de los Santos Toro y        (b. 1721 - d. 1778)
                             Freyre, conde de Argelejo
14 Nov 1778 - 30 Dec 1781  Joaquín Primo de Rivera y Pérez    (b. 1734 - d. 1800)
                             de Acal                             
30 Dec 1781 - 27 Oct 1827  Vacant
Superintendents (and from 1843, governors)
(also British Consuls of the Bight of Biafra [Nigeria] 1849-1855)
27 Oct 1827 -  4 Apr 1829  William Fitz William Owen          (b. 1774 - d. 1857)
 4 Apr 1829 - 1830         Edward Nicolls (1st time)          (b. 1779 - d. 1865)
1830 - 1831                John Beecroft (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1790 - d. 1854)
18 Aug 1831 - 1833         Edward Nicolls (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1833 - 10 Jun 1854         John Beecroft (2nd time)           (s.a.)
10 Jun 1854 - 27 May 1858  James W.B. Lynslager (acting)      (b. 1810 - d. 1864)
Governors (usually 1870-1879 and from 1885, Governors-general)
27 May 1858 -  1 Sep 1859  Carlos de Chacón y Michelena       (b. 1816 - d. 1863)
 1 Sep 1859 - 30 Jun 1862  José de la Gándara y Navarro       (b. 1820 - d. 1885)
30 Jun 1862 -  1 Aug 1865  Pantaleón López de la Torre Ayllón
 1 Aug 1865 - 31 Aug 1865  Francisco Osorio (acting)
31 Aug 1865 - 18 Sep 1865  Félix Recio (1st time) (acting)
18 Sep 1865 -  1 Apr 1868  José Gómez de Barreda
 1 Apr 1868 -  9 Aug 1868  Félix Recio (2nd time) (acting)
 9 Aug 1868 - 18 Jul 1869  Joaquín de Souza y Gallardo
21 Aug 1869 - 11 Sep 1869  Clemente Ramos (acting)
11 Sep 1869 - 21 Jan 1870  Manuel Vial (1st time) (acting)
21 Jan 1870 - 11 Jun 1870  Zoilo Sánchez Ocaña                (b. 1831 - d. 1907)
11 Jun 1870 - 16 Aug 1870  Manuel Vial (2nd time) (acting)
16 Aug 1870 - 14 Feb 1871  Felipe C. Argüelles (1st time)
                             (acting)
14 Feb 1871 - 28 Apr 1871  Federico Anrich
28 Apr 1871 -  1 Oct 1871  Felipe C. Argüelles (2nd time)
                             (acting)
 1 Oct 1871 - 23 Jun 1872  Antonio Vivar (acting)
23 Jun 1872 -  5 Dec 1872  Pedro Osa (acting)
 5 Dec 1872 - 22 Nov 1874  Ignacio García Tudela
22 Nov 1874 - 22 Jan 1875  Jacobo Varela (acting)
22 Jan 1875 - 13 Feb 1877  Diego Santisteban y Chamorro
13 Feb 1877 -  1 Feb 1879  Alejandro Arias Salgado
 1 Feb 1879 - 21 Apr 1879  Luis de la Pila (acting)
21 Apr 1879 - 20 Jun 1879  Juan Aguilar (acting)
20 Jun 1879 - 24 Jul 1879  José Montes de Oca y Aceñero       (b. 1844 - d. 1897)
                             (1st time) (acting)
24 Jul 1879 -  3 Sep 1880  Enrique Santaló y Sáenz de Tejada
 3 Sep 1880 - 24 Jan 1883  José Montes de Oca y Aceñero       (s.a.)
 
                            (2nd time)

24 Jan 1883 - 25 Jan 1883  Francisco Romera (acting)
25 Jan 1883 - 28 Dec 1884  Antonio Cano
28 Dec 1884 - 28 Jan 1885  Waldo Pérez Cossio (acting)
28 Jan 1885 -  1 Oct 1887  José Montes de Oc
a y Aceñero       (s.a.)
                            
(3rd time)

 1 Oct 1887 -  8 Nov 1887  Juan de la Rocha (acting)
 8 Nov 1887 -  4 Feb 1888  Luis Navarro
 4 Feb 1888 - 20 Apr 1888  José de Ibarra (1st time)
                             (acting)
20 Apr 1888 - 21 Apr 1890  Antonio Morena Guerra
21 Apr 1890 -  4 Nov 1890  José de Ibarra (2nd time)
 4 Nov 1890 - 22 Dec 1890  José Gómez de Barreda
22 Dec 1890 - 24 Dec 1891  José de Barrasa y Fernández de
                             Castro
24 Dec 1891 - 10 Apr 1892  Antonio Martínez
10 Apr 1892 - 12 May 1893  Eulogio Merchán y Rico
12 May 1893 - 17 May 1893  Dionisio Shelly (1st time)
                             (acting)
17 May 1893 -  1 Jun 1893  Pio Porcell (acting)
 1 Jun 1893 - 29 Jul 1893  Dionisio Shelly (2nd time)
                             (acting)
29 Jul 1893 - 16 Feb 1895  José de la Puente y Bassavé
16 Feb 1895 - 21 Jul 1895  Agustín Cuesta (acting)
21 Jul 1895 - 19 May 1897  Adolfo de España y Gómez
                             de Humarán
19 May 1897 - 19 Jun 1897  Armando Pontes (acting)
19 Jun 1897 - 21 Jul 1897  Mateo Mezquida (acting)
21 Jul 1897 - 19 Oct 1897  Manuel Rico
19 Oct 1897 -  7 Nov 1899  José Rodríguez de Vera
 7 Nov 1899 - 30 Nov 1899  Francisco Guarro (acting)
30 Nov 1899 - 12 Dec 1899  Guillermo Lacave (acting)
14 Dec 1899 -  3 Mar 1901  Francisco Dueñas
 3 Mar 1901 - 25 Feb 1905  José de Ibarra y Autrán
25 Feb 1905 - 26 Mar 1906  José Gómez de la Serna
26 Mar 1906 - 20 Sep 1906  Diego Saavedra y Magdalena         (d. 1935)
                             (1st time)
20 Sep 1906 - 18 Feb 1907  Ángel Barrera y Luyando (1st time) (b. 1863 - d. 1927)
18 Feb 1907 - 17 Aug 1908  Luis Ramos Izquierdo y Vivar       (b. 18.. - d. 1916)
17 Aug 1908 - 30 Sep 1908  Luis Dabán (acting)
30 Sep 1908 - 19 Oct 1908  Diego Saavedra y Magdalena         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
19 Oct 1908 - 10 Sep 1910  José Centeno y Anchorena
10 Sep 1910 -  8 Feb 1924  Ángel Barrera y Luyando (2nd time) (s.a.)
 8 Feb 1924 -  8 Feb 1926  Carlos Tovar de Revilla
 8 Feb 1926 -  1 Mar 1931  Miguel Núñez de Prado y Susbielas  (b. 1882 - d. 1936)
 1 Jan 1928 - 14 Aug 1928  Adolfo García Amilivia             (d. 1930)
                             (acting for Prado)
 2 Aug 1930 -  1 Mar 1931  José Domínguez Manresa
                             (acting for Prado)
20 Apr 1931 -  1 Nov 1931  José Domínguez Manresa (1st time)
                             (interim)
 1 Nov 1931 - 14 Nov 1932  Gustavo de Sostoa y Sthamer        (b. 1872 - d. 1932)
14 Nov 1932 - 15 Nov 1932  Pedro Agustín González Ordóñez
                             (acting)
15 Nov 1932 - 10 Jul 1933  José Domínguez Manresa (2nd time)
                             (interim)
10 Jul 1933 -  1 Sep 1934  Estanislao Lluesma García          (b. 1874 - d. 1948)
 1 Sep 1934 -  5 Sep 1935  José Domínguez Manresa (3rd time)
                             (acting)
 5 Sep 1934 - 10 Dec 1935  Ángel Manzaneque Feltrer           (b. 1893 - d. 1949)
15 Jun 1935 - 10 Dec 1935  Luis Serrano Maranges (1st time)   (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
                             (acting)
10 Dec 1935 - 25 Sep 1936  Luis Sánchez Guerra y Sáinz (Sáez) (b. .... - d. 1971)
15 Sep 1936 - 25 Sep 1936  Estanislao Lluesma García          (s.a.)
                             (appointed, did not take office)
25 Mar 1936 - 12 Apr 1936  Carlos Vázquez Ruiz
                             (acting for Guerra y Sáinz)
25 Sep 1936 -  1 Jan 1937  Luis Serrano Maranges (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)(Nationalist, in rebellion from 19 Sep 1936)
25 Sep 1936 - 14 Oct 1936  Miguel Hernández Porcel
                             (Republican subgovernor in Río Muni, in dissidence)
12 Dec 1936 - 14 Dec 1936  Carlos Vázquez Ruiz
                             (acting for Serrano)
 
1 Jan 1937 - 15 Dec 1937  Manuel de Mendívil y Elío          (b. 1884 - d. 1942)
15 Dec 1937 -  5 Mar 1942  Juan Fontán y Lobé                 (b. 1899 - d. 1944)
12 Jun 1938 - 21 Sep 1938  Natividad Calzada y Castañeda
                             (acting for Fontan)
30 Aug 1939 - 15 Dec 1939  Víctor Suances Díaz del Río
                             (acting for Fontan)
22 Aug 1940 - 16 Sep 1940  Fernando González Lavín
                             (acting for Fontan)
16 Sep 1940 - 17 May 1941  Víctor Suances Díaz del Río
                             (acting for Fontan)
14 Aug 1941 - 13 Oct 1941  Pedro Cano Manuel Aubarede
                             (acting for Fontán)
13 Oct 1941 -  5 Mar 1942  José Luis Soraluce Irastorza
                             (acting for Fontán)
 5 Mar 1942 - 12 Feb 1944  Mariano Alonso Alonso              (b. 1899 - d. 1974)
18 Oct 1943 - 12 Feb 1944  Rufino Pérez Barrueco
                             (acting for Alonso)
12 Feb 1944 -  6 Mar 1949  Juan María Bonelli Rubio           (b. 1904 - d. 1981)
13 Sep 1944 -  2 Mar 1945  Joaquín Bosch de la Barrera        (b. 1909 - d. 1997)
                             (acting for Bonelli)
 9 Aug 1946 - 22 Feb 1947  Joaquín Bosch de la Barrera        (s.a.)
                             (acting for Bonelli)
12 Apr 1948 -  8 Aug 1948  Carlos Rodríguez Solano y Dueñas
                             (acting for Bonelli)
 6 Mar 1949 - Apr 1949     Pedro Grajera Torres (acting)
Apr 1949 - 21 Feb 1962     Faustino Ruíz González             (b. 1900 - d. 1969)
Nov 1953 - 1954            Hermenegildo Altozano Moraleda     (b. 1916 - d. 1981)
                             (acting for Ruíz González)
21 Feb 1962 - 10 Mar 1964  Francisco Núñez Rodríguez          (b. 1902 - d. 1972)
10 Mar 1964 - Jul 1964     Pedro Latorre Alcubierre           (b. 1900 - d. 1995)
Commissioners-general
Jul 1964 - Aug 1966        Pedro Latorre Alcubierre           (s.a.)
Aug 1966 - 12 Oct 1968     Víctor Suances Díaz del Río
Presidents
12 Oct 1968 -  3 Aug 1979  Francisco Macías Nguema            (b. 1922 - d. 1979) IPGE;1970 
                            (from 14 Jul 1972, Francisco Macías                   PUNT
                             Nguema Biyogo; from 26 Sep 1975,
                             Macías Nguema Biyogo Ñegue Ndong;
                             from 1976, Masie Nguema Biyogo
                             Ñegue Ndong) 
 3 Aug 1979 -              Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo      (b. 1942)          Mil;1987 PDGE
                            (chairman Revolutionary Military Council to 25 Aug 1979,
                             chairman Supreme Military Council 25 Aug 1979 - 12 Oct 1982)
 
Prime ministers
27 May 1964 - 12 Oct 1968  Bonifacio Ondó Edu                 (b. 1922 - d. 1969)  MUNGE
                             (chairman of the council of government)
12 Oct 1968 - 12 Oct 1982  Post abolished
12 Oct 1982 - 23 Jan 1992  Cristino Seriche Bioko Malabo      (b. 1940?)         Mil;1987 PDGE
23 Jan 1992 -  1 Apr 1996  Silvestre Siale Bileka             (b. 1939)            PDGE
 1 Apr 1996 -  4 Mar 2001  Ángel Serafin Seriche Dougan       (b. 1946)            PDGE
 4 Mar 2001 - 15 Jun 2004  Cándido Muatetema Rivas            (b. 1960 - d. 2014)  PDGE
15 Jun 2004 - 16 Aug 2006  Miguel Abia Biteo Boricó           (b. 1961 - d. 2012)  PDGE
16 Aug 2006 - 14 Jul 2008  Ricardo Mangué Obama Nfubea        (b. 1961?)           PDGE
14 Jul 2008 - 28 May 2012  Ignacio Milam Tang                 (b. 1940)            PDGE
28 May 2012 -              Vicente Ehate Tomi                 (b. 1968)            PDGE
 
International Disputes: In 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delayed final delimitation; UN urged Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane and lesser islands and to create a maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay

Party abbreviations: PDGE = Partido Democrático de Guinea Ecuatorial (Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea, authoritarian, African nationalist, Nguema personalist, 1987-1991 state party, est.11 Oct 1987); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: IPGE = Idea Popular de la Guinea Ecuatorial (Popular Idea of Equatorial Guinea, pro-independence, leftist nationalist, 1958-1970); MUNGE = Movimiento de Unidad Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial (National Unity Movement of Equatorial Guinea, pro-independence, 1963-1970); PUNT = Partido Único Nacional de los Trabajadores de Guinea Ecuatorial (National Unified Worker's Party, Macías Nguema personalist, authoritarian, state party, 7 Jul 1970-Aug 1979)


Provinces 1959-1968

20 Aug 1959
               Spanish Equatorial Region (divided into two
                             overseas provinces: Fernando Póo and Río Muni).
12 Oct 1968                Part of independent Equatorial Guinea.

Civil Governor of Fernando Póo
20 Aug 1959
- 24 Jul 1964  none appointed
24 Jul 1964 - 12 Oct 1968  Pablo Adolfo Góbena Mendo

Civil Governors of Río Muni
12 May 1960 - 16 Feb 1961  Manuel Cervera Cabello             (d. 1981)
16 Feb 1961 -  3 Jul 1964  Víctor Suances Díaz del Río
24 Jul 1964 - 12 Oct 1968  Simón Ngomo Ndumu Asumu            (d. 1969)



Annobón

 1 Jan 1474                Annobón island sighted by Capt. Rui de Sequeira,
                             subsequently claimed for Portugal and named Ilha de
                             Ano Bom (as part of São Tomé & Príncipe).
1503                       Donated to Jorge de Melo (subordinated to São Tomé & Principe).
16 Dec 1598 –  2 Jan 1599  Dutch occupation.
Oct 1641 - 1648            Dutch occupation.
Apr 1662 - 1664            Dutch occupation.
25 Mar 1744                Portuguese crown possession.
 1 Oct 1777                Ceded to Spain by the Treaty of San Ildefonso (ratified on
                             11 Oct 1777), confirmed 11 Mar 1778 by the Treaty of El
                             Pardo (ratified 24 Mar 1778).
24 Oct 1778                Spanish take possession (but evacuate in 1780).
16 Aug 1885                Spanish presence renewed, permanently from 1887.            
  
Donataries
1503 – 15..                Jorge de Melo
15.. – 1565                Alvaro da Cunha
1565 - ....                Luis de Almeida de Vasconcelos
.... - ....                Manuel de Almeida
.... - ....                Maria de Almeida (f)
.... - ....                Luisa da Silva (f)
.... - ....                Maria da Silva Melo (f)
.... - ....                Mateus da Cunha de Eça
.... – 25 Mar 1744         Martinho da Cunha d'Eça e Almeida
Captains-major
1744 - 1778                ....
c.1757                     João Dias Raposo





© Ben Cahoon