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Djibouti
 
[Flag of
                                    France]
           11 Mar 1862 - 27 Jun 1977
 
[Djibouti]
                  Adopted 27 Jun 1977
 
Map of Djibouti
Hear National Anthem
"Jabuuti" (Djibouti)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1977
Constitution
 (15 Sep 1992; in French)
Capital: Djibouti
(Obock 1862-Mar 1895)
Currency: Djibouti Franc
(DJF); 1967-1977 Afars and
 Issas Franc (AIF)
National Holiday: 27 Jun (1977)
Independence Day
Population: 792,198 (2013)
GDP: $2.50 billion (2013)
Exports: $90.8 million (2013)
Imports: $593.3 million (2013)
Ethnic groups: Somali (Issa) 46%, Afar 35.4%, Arab 11%,
mixed African and European 3%, French 1.6%, other 3% (2000) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 12,000 (2011)
French Troops: 3,000 (2012)
U.S. Troops: 139 (2012)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94.1%, Christian 4.5%
(of which
Orthodox 3%, Roman Catholic 1.4%),
non-religious 1.3%, other 0.1% (2000) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, APM, Arabsat, AU, CAEU (candidate), CCM (signatory), CEN-SAD, COMESA, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Djibouti Index
Chronology

Jul 1858 -  4 Jun 1859     French attempt to acquire Obock.
11 Mar 1862                France acquires port of Obock (effective 20 May
                             1862); remains unoccupied until 29 Dec 1883.
Jul 1866                   French trader Denis de Rivoyre arrives in Obock.
1880                       French officially delimit the territory of Obock;
                             Arnoux takes over trading concession in Obock.
1881                       La Compagnie Franco-Éthiopienne and the La Société
                             Française d'Obock et du Golfe Persique
founded.
1883                       Obock colony founded.
24 Jun 1884                Treaty of protection with Sultan of Tadjoura.
24 Jun 1884                Territory of Obock and Protectorate of Tadjoura
                            (Territoire Française d'Obock, Protectorat
                             Tadjoura, Dankils et Somalis).
 9 Aug 1884                Treaty of friendship with Dankali Sultan of Gobad.
18 Oct 1884                Sultan of Tadjoura cedes Sagallo to Paul Soleillet
                             of La Société Française d'Obock who in turn cedes
                             it to the French Government.
10 Jan 1885                Sultan of Rahayto, already subject to the influence
                             of the Italian traders in Assab, nevertheless,
                             agrees to recognize French sovereignty over the
                             coast between Ras Ali to Ras Doumeira.
25 Mar 1885                Accord with Nour Oblé, Ougaz of Gadaboursi,
                             establishing a French protectorate over the
                             Gadaboursis Somalis.
1887                       City of Djibouti founded.
 8 Feb 1889                Moucha Island and Isle of Abou Maya ceded to France
 9 Feb 1888                French protectorate recognized by Britain.
17 Jan 1889 - 16 Feb 1889  Dissident Russian Cossack leader Nicholas
                             Ivanovitch Atchimoff occupies Sagallo.
20 May 1896                French Somaliland (Côte Française des Somalis).
16 Jun 1940 - 28 Dec 1942  Administration loyal to Vichy France 
                             (from 28 Dec 1942, Free French).
27 Oct 1946                Status changed from colony to overseas territory.
28 Sep 1958                Referendum votes in favor of continued association
                             with France, 75.2%-24.7%.
19 Mar 1967                Independence referendum supports a continued but
                             looser relationship with France, 60.6%-39.4%
 5 Jul 1967                French Territory of the Afars and Issas
                             (Territoire français des Afars et des Issas).
 8 May 1977                Independence referendum supports independence
                             99.8%-0.2%
27 Jun 1977                Independence from France (Republic of Djibouti).

Tadjoura
Rahayto
(Rahaito)
 
 
 
 
 
 

French Consular Agent (at Aden)
Jul 1858 -  4 Jun 1859     Henri Lambert                      (b. 1828 - d. 1859)
French Trade Agents

Jul 1866 - 1880            Barthélemy Louis Denis de Rivoyre  (b. 1837 - d. 1907)  
1880 - 1883                Pierre Arnoux
Commissioner

29 Dec 1883 - 24 Jun 1884  Léonce Lagarde, vicomte de         (b. 1860 - d. 1936)
                             Rouffeyroux
Commandant
24 Jun 1884 -  5 Sep 1887  Léonce Lagarde, vicomte de         (s.a.)
                             Rouffeyroux
Governors
 5 Sep 1887 -  7 Mar 1899  Léonce Lagarde, vicomte de         (s.a.)
                             Rouffeyroux
 7 Mar 1899 - 23 Mar 1899  Louis Alexandre Antoine Mizon      (b. 1853 - d. 1899)
                             (acting)
28 Mar 1899 - 13 Apr 1900  Alfred Albert Martineau            (b. 1859 - d. 1945)
13 Apr 1900 -  6 Dec 1900  Gabriel Louis Angoulvant (acting)  (b. 1872 - d. 1932)
 6 Dec 1900 -  2 Apr 1904  Adrien Jules Jean Bonhoure         (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
 7 Sep 1901 - Jun 1902     Louis Auguste Bertrand Ormières    (b. 1851 - d. 1914) 
                             (1st time)(acting for Bonhoure)
23 May 1903 - Dec 1903     Albert Dubarry (1st time)          (b. 1865 - d. 1940) 
                             (acting for Bonhoure)
 2 Apr 1904 -  5 Aug 1904  Albert Dubarry (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.) 
 5 Aug 1904 - 1915         Pierre Hubert Auguste Pascal       (b. 1861 - d. 1946) 
 9 Sep 1905 - 13 Oct 1905  Raphaël Antonetti                  (b. 1872 - d. 1938) 
                             (acting for Pascal)
13 Oct 1905 - 19 May 1906  Louis Auguste Bertrand Ormières    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting for Pascal)
19 May 1906 - 19 Jun 1906  Paul Désiré Patté                  (b. 1856 - d. 1919)
                             (acting for Pascal)

Jul 1908 -  5 Jul 1909     Jean Baptiste Castaing (1st time)  (b. 1864 - d. 1915)
                             (acting for Pascal)
Jun 1911 - Dec 1911        Jean Baptiste Castaing (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting for Pascal)
1915 - 1916                Paul Simoni                        (b. 1863 - d. 1931)
1916 - 1918                Victor Marius Fillon               (b. 1863 - d. 1923)
1918 - 1924                Jules Gérard Auguste Lauret        (b. 1866 - d. 19..)
1924 - 1932                Pierre Aimable Chapon-Baissac      (b. 1876 – d. af.1934)
1932 - 1934                Louis Placide Blacher              (b. 1883 - d. 1960)
 6 Aug 1934 - 18 Jul 1935  Jules Marcel de Coppet             (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
18 Jul 1935 - 20 Dec 1935  Achille Louis Auguste Silvestre    (b. 1879 - d. 1937)
20 Dec 1935 -  1 May 1937  Armand Léon Annet                  (b. 1888 - d. 1973)
 1 May 1937 - 27 Apr 1938  Marie François Julien Pierre-Alype (b. 1886 - d. 1956) 
                             (acting to 19 Mar 1938)
27 Apr 1938 - 25 Jul 1940  Hubert Jules Deschamps             (b. 1900 - d. 1979) 
                             (acting to 2 May 1939)
25 Jul 1940 -  2 Sep 1940  Gaëtan Loïc Louis Elie Germain     (b. 1904 - d. 1956)
 2 Sep 1940 - 12 Oct 1942  Pierre Marie Elie Louis            (b. 1894 - d. 1985)
                             Nouailhetas
12 Oct 1942 -  4 Dec 1942  Auguste Charles Jules Truffert     (b. 1886 - d. 1967)
 4 Dec 1942 - 30 Dec 1942  Edmond Gustave Dupont (acting)     (b. 1888 - d. 1957)
28 Dec 1942 – 30 Dec 1942  Ludovic Chancel –Delegate          (b. 1901 - d. 1971)
30 Dec 1942 - 22 Jun 1943  Ange Marie Charles André           (b. 1896 - d. 1947)

                             Bayardelle
22 Jun 1943 -  1 May 1944  Michel Raphaël Antoine Saller      (b. 1899 - d. 1976)
                             (acting to 7 Jan 1944)
 1 May 1944 - 30 Apr 1946  Jean Victor Louis Joseph Chalvet   (b. 1893 - d. 1975)
30 Apr 1946 -  1 Mar 1950  Paul Henri Siriex                  (b. 1908 - d. 2003)
 1 Mar 1950 -  6 Apr 1954  Numa François Henri Sadoul         (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
 6 Apr 1954 - 13 Aug 1954  Roland Joanes Louis Pré            (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
13 Aug 1954 -  7 Aug 1957  René Jean Albert Petitbon          (b. 1902 - d. 1965)
 7 Aug 1957 - 1958         Maurice Méker                      (b. 1913 - d. 1987)
21 Oct 1958 - 16 Nov 1962  Jacques Marie Julien Compain       (b. 1912 - d. 1984)
16 Nov 1962 - 15 Sep 1966  René Tirant                        (b. 1907 - d. ....)
15 Sep 1966 -  3 Jul 1967  Louis Joseph Édouard Saget         (b. 1915 - d. 2010)
High Commissioners
 3 Jul 1967 -  5 Feb 1969  Louis Joseph Édouard Saget         (s.a.)
 5 Feb 1969 - 21 Aug 1971  Dominique Ponchardier              (b. 1917 - d. 1986)
21 Aug 1971 -  1 Aug 1974  Georges Thiercy                    (b. 1915)
 1 Aug 1974 -  9 Feb 1976  Christian Dablanc                  (b. 1931 - d. 1989)
 9 Feb 1976 - 27 Jun 1977  Camille d'Ornano                   (b. 1917 - d. 1989)
Presidents
27 Jun 1977 -  8 May 1999  Hassan Gouled Aptidon (Issa)       (b. 1916 - d. 2006) LPAI/RPI/RPP
 8 May 1999 -              Ismail Omar Guelleh (Issa)         (b. 1947)            RPP + UMP

Vice presidents of the Government Council
Jul 1957 - Dec 1958        Mahamoud Harbi Farah (Issa)        (b. 1921 - d. 1960)  MUR
Dec 1958 - Apr 1959        Hassan Gouled Aptidon (Issa)       (s.a.)               UPA
May 1959 - Jun 1960        Ahmed Dini Ahmed (Afar)            (b. 1932 - d. 2004)  PMP 
Jun 1960 - Nov 1966        Ali Aref Bourhan (Afar)            (b. 1934)           PMP;1963 UDA
 5 Nov 1966 - Apr 1967     Abdallah Mohamed Kamil (Afar)      (b. 1936)            UDA
27 Apr 1967 -  7 Jul 1967  Ali Aref Bourhan (Afar)            (s.a.)               RDA
Presidents of the Government Council

 7 Jul 1967 - 29 Jul 1976  Ali Aref Bourhan (Afar)            (s.a.)              RDA;1975 UNI
29 Jul 1976 - 18 May 1977  Abdallah Mohamed Kamil (Afar)      (s.a.)               LPAI
Prime ministers
18 May 1977 - 12 Jul 1977  Hassan Gouled Aptidon (Issa)       (s.a.)               LPAI
12 Jul 1977 -  5 Feb 1978  Ahmed Dini Ahmed (Afar)            (s.a.)               RPI
 5 Feb 1978 -  2 Oct 1978  Abdallah Mohamed Kamil (Afar)      (s.a.)               RPI
 2 Oct 1978 -  7 Mar 2001  Barkat Gourad Hamadou (Afar)       (b. 1930)           RPI;1979 RPP
 7 Mar 2001 -  1 Apr 2013  Dileita Mohamed Dileita (Afar)     (b. 1958)            RPP + UMP
 1 Apr 2013 -              Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed (Afar)   (b. 1951)            RPP + UMP

Note: The Ethno-linguistic group, which plays an important role in politics, is listed in parentheses after the leaders name when known i.e. (Issa).

Territorial Disputes: Djibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Somalia; Kuwait is chief investor in the 2008 restoration and upgrade of the Ethiopian-Djibouti rail link; in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red.

Party abbreviations: RPP = Rassemblement Populaire pour le Progrès (People's Rally for Progress, social democratic, authoritarian, Mar 1979-Sep 1992 only legal party, est.4 Mar 1979); UMP = Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle (Union for a Presidential Majority, pro-Guelleh coalition of RPP, Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy [FRUD], National Democratic Party [PND] and the Social Democratic People's Party [PPSD], est.2003);
- Former parties: LAO = Ligue pour l'Avenir et l'Ordre (League for the Future and Order, predominantly Afar, Ahmed Dini personalist, 1975 merged into LPAI); LPA = Ligue Populaire Africaine (African People's League, mainly Issa, H. Gouled personalist, 1972-1974, renamed LPAI); LPAI = Ligue Populaire Africaine pour l'Indépendance (African People's League for Independence, multi-ethnic, pro-independence, merger of LPA and Action pour la Justice et la Progrès, 1975-1977, renamed RPI); MUR = Mouvement d'Union Républicaine (Republican Union Movement, pro-independence, pan-Somali, 1957-1958); PMP = Parti Mouvement Populaire (People's Movement Party, Somali nationalist, 1958-1967); RDA = Rassemblement Démocratique Afar (Afar Democratic Rally, split from UDA, 1965-1975, renamed UNI); RPI = Rassemblement Populaire pour l'Indépendance (People's Rally for Independence, 1977-1979, renamed RPP); UDA = Union Démocratique Afar (Afar Democratic Union, 1960-1975?); UNI = Union Nationale pour l'Indépendance (National Union for Independence, mainly Afar, Gaullist, former RDA, 1975-1979); UPA = Union Populaire Africaine (African People's Union, predominantly Issa, 1975 merged into LPA);



Tadjoura

Sultanate of Tadjoura

1415 - 1559                Part of Adal sultanate.
c.1620                     Tadjoura sultanate.
24 Jun 1884                French protectorate.
27 Jun 1977                Part of independent Djibouti.

Sultans

1620                       Burhan bin Muhammad
1630                       Dini bin Muhammad
1655                       Kamil bin Burhan
1655                       Hamad bin Dini (or Muhammad bin Dini)
1680                       Musa bin Kamil
1680                       Dini bin Hamad (or Nasser bin Hamad)
1705                       Hamad bin Musa
1705                       Muhammad bin Dini
1740                       Muhammad bin Hamad
1770                       Hamad bin Naser
1770                       Hummad bin Muhammad
1800 - 1820                Mandaytu bin Hamad
1821 - 1859                Ad'allom Muhammad bin Hummad
1860 -  9 Mar 1862         Muhammad bin Mandaytu
1863 - 1879                Hummad bin Ad'allom Muhammad
1880 - 24 Aug 1912         Hummad bin Muhammad
 2 Dec 1913 -  6 Aug 1927  Muhammad bin Arbahim
Dec 1928 - 21 Apr 1962     Hummad bin Muhammad bin Arbahim
18 May 1964 - 1984         Habib bin Hummad bin Muhammad
1985 -                     Abd'ul Kadir bin Hummad bin
                             Muhammad bin Arbahim



Rahayto (Rahaita)
 
10 Jan 1885                French protectorate, the Sultan already subject to the influence
                             of the Italian traders in Assab, nevertheless,
                             agrees to recognize French sovereignty over the
                             coast between Ras Ali to Ras Doumeira.

27 Jun 1977                Part of independent Djibouti.

Sultans
c.1600                     Gibdi Ahmad
c.1630                     Abdulli
c.1660                     Kamil
c.1690                     Ad'allom Ahmad
c.1705                     Dini bin Ad'allom Ahmad
c.1755                     Hamad bin Burhan
c.1755                     Burhan bin Dini
c.1780                     Burhan Saddik bin Hamad
c.1815                     Mahammad bin Burhan bin Dini
c.1839                     Mahammad bin Burhan Saddik
1862 - 1863                Dini bin Mahammad
1863 - 20 Oct 1884         Burhan said Asa Dardar
1887 - 1910                Hummad bin Mahammad bin Burhan
bf.1936                    Kadda Mahammad bin Burhan
1936 - 1944                Hamad bin Hummad
1945 - 1950                Abdo bin Kadda Mahammad
1951 - 1984?               Dawud bin Mahammad
1984? -                    Obkari bin Abdo





© Ben Cahoon